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Tanzania Travel Guide: Best Places to Visit And Things To Do

Tanzania is the very country of childhood dreams with unique animals, Mount Kilimanjaro, and the golden sands of Zanzibar. Now it is available to everyone. Our guide to Tanzania will tell you how to make your dream a reality.

Tanzania is the largest state in East Africa and, for sure, one of the most attractive countries for tourists on the entire African continent: thanks to a sufficiently developed tourist infrastructure, relative safety, rich fauna, and a variety of natural areas, as well as because of the vast opportunities for beach recreation.

The country, located in the southern hemisphere a few degrees south of the equator, borders Kenya and Uganda to the north, Rwanda, Burundi and Congo to the west, and Zambia, Malawi, and Mozambique to the south. The waters of the Indian Ocean wash the east coast.

Tanzania is a country of geographical records: the highest point in Africa is the famous volcano Kilimanjaro (5,895 m), the lowest point on the continent – in Lake Tanganyika, and the largest lake in Africa – Victoria. In the central part of the country, there is a large plateau at an altitude of 900 to 1800 meters.

Tourism is developing rapidly here, being one of the primary sources of income for the local economy.

For tourists, Tanzania provides a fantastic opportunity to combine various leisure activities: safari, trekking, beach holidays, sightseeing, ecotourism, etc. In addition, the country is home to more than 160 indigenous tribes, of which the most famous is the Masai, who have preserved their traditional way of life. In the middle of the wild. It has become a tangible symbol of Tanzania, but other, no less distinctive guests can get to know.

On the country’s mainland, there are natural objects of the Great African Rift: lakes, volcanoes, craters. And in terms of the number of national parks, Tanzania is the leader in Africa, and each natural park is unique and unique. On the islands of the Zanzibar archipelago, tourists will find a great beach holiday, diving, fishing, and exciting excursions.

History

The territory of modern Tanzania has been inhabited since ancient times, beginning with the Stone Age.

Tanzania before colonization

Initially, various peoples lived on the territory of ancient Tanzania – tribes related to the Bushmen and Hottentots, to whom in the 1st century. The Kushites and Bantu joined BC. The formation of a new ethnic community of Swahili began in the 1st century. AD: it was made up of indigenous peoples, as well as newly arrived tribes – from Iran, Arabia, India.

Swahili traded in trade. They brought slaves, ivory, gold from Africa and returned overseas with various handicrafts, fabrics, food.

European colonialists, namely the Portuguese, came to this coast at the beginning of the 16th century, and since 1505 they have owned almost all the ports. But by the end of the 17th century. The invaders were driven out, and the Arabs and residents took up the slave trade. At this time, the first states under the leaders’ leadership began to appear on the territory of present-day Tanzania.

In the middle of the XIX century. Hundreds of Europeans came here: traders and missionaries from Great Britain, France, Germany, and America.

Colonial period

In 1885, 29-year-old German Karl Peters landed on the shores of Tanzania, who persuaded 12 local leaders to sign an agreement with him on a protectorate – in fact, on the transition to German rule. The British became worried and entered into a similar agreement with the Sultan of Zanzibar in 1890.

A year later, Peters announced the creation of the imperial colony of German East Africa. Established plantations of rubber, coffee, cotton, railways were built, and the total number of German settlers in the settlement reached almost 5,500 people.

The first uprising of residents in 1905-1907 was brutally suppressed. In 1914, during the First Myrrh War, fighting broke out in Tanzania between the Germans on the one hand and the British, Belgians, and Portuguese on the other. The action did not die out until November 1918, when Germany made peace with the Entente. After that, Tanzania was under the British protectorate.

Independent Republic of Tanganyika and Zanzibar

In December 1961, Great Britain agreed to give independence to Tanganyika (the mainland of modern Tanzania), and in December 1963 – to Zanzibar, which was still a sultanate.

But a year later, a revolt took place on the island, the sultan was overthrown, and the two republics created the United Republic of Tanganyika and Zanzibar – Tanzania.

The new country tried to build public facilities, roads, and bridges, attracting students, women, and the elderly, but officials were engaged in personal enrichment. This period ended in unrest among the students, who were quickly suppressed.

In January 1967, the country’s leadership set a course for communism, banks, industrial enterprises, trade organizations, plantations, including those belonging to foreigners, were nationalized, and collective farms appeared.

Only in 1995 were democratic multiparty elections held. As a result, the president became the head of the country.

Climate and weather in Tanzania

The climate of Tanzania is subequatorial with a weakly pronounced seasonality. At the same time, there are two rainy seasons in the north – a short one, from late October to late December (Mango Rains), and a long one from March to May, while in the south, there is only one monsoon season (November – April). The air temperature throughout the year fluctuates between + 20 … + 35 ° C.

The hottest months of the year are December, January, and February, and the weather is sunny in winter. The air temperature is kept at around + 35 ° C. It was during this period that many tourists visited the country.

With the arrival of spring, the air temperature rises to + 28 ° C on average, but due to the high humidity, it becomes stuffy.

In summer, the country is noticeably drier, and this time is excellent for a beach holiday and for a safari (the safari season starts in June).

Autumn is also favorable for tourist trips to Tanzania, despite intermittent rains, not spoil the overall holiday experience. In autumn, you can enjoy diving, swimming in the warm ocean, excursions, and visits to national parks.

As for the islands of the Zanzibar archipelago, the climate there is humid, the average daytime temperature is + 28 … + 30 ° C, but the breeze from the sea makes the weather comfortable. The water temperature in the Indian Ocean is kept at around + 24 … + 26 ° С all year round.

Climbing Mount Kilimanjaro can be done throughout the year, but it is believed that the best climb is between August and October and January to March.

Thus, the best time to visit the north of Tanzania can be from July to October and from December to March. It is advisable to go to the south in June – October, to the west – from December to March and from May to October. In Zanzibar, the high season lasts from July to October and from December to March.

Cities and regions

Administratively, Tanzania is divided into 30 regions, called “mkoa” in Swahili. The country has two capitals: the de facto center is the historical capital Dar es Salaam, and the legal center is the large city of Dodoma.

The administrative division is hardly interesting for tourists. Still, it will be helpful for them to learn how to navigate the country and where its most interesting places are located.

Eastern

The eastern part of Tanzania lies on the coast of the Indian Ocean, and the economic capital of Dar es Salaam is also located here – the main air gateway of the country, where most of the tourists arrive. At the same time, the region has a lot of interesting objects, beaches, hotels, which makes it ideal for acclimatization before traveling around the country.

Dar es Salaam is the largest city in Tanzania, founded in 1862 by the Sultan of Zanzibar Seyid Majid in the village of Mzizima. It was the capital until 1973. It remains an important economic and political center of East Africa and a central transport hub: the country’s largest seaport, a large railway station, and an international airport.

Tourists will find something to do for a couple of days in Dar es Salaam: you can walk in the center, built up in various architectural styles – Swahili, English, German and Asian. It is also worth looking into the shops to buy everything you need for your upcoming trip around the country, buy souvenirs at the colorful Kariyaku market, you can plan trips to neighboring African countries.

Nightlife lovers will not be disappointed either: noisy discos, restaurants, and even a casino. To relax on the beaches, it is better to go outside Dar es Salaam: to Oyster Bay, Ras Kutani or Kunduchi beach, and the islands – to Zanzibar or Pemba.

70 km north of Dar es Salaam, also on the ocean coast, is the fascinating historical city of Bagamoyo. Once he claimed the title of the country’s capital and was the center of the slave trade. Its name comes from the word Bwagomoyo, which means “Here I left my heart.”

Today Bagamoyo is famous for its excellent beaches and many historical sites, including a 19th-century fort. With the Museum of History, the oldest building in Lucu House (1868), Livingstone Memorial, caravanserai, 14 mosques, etc. It is quite possible to come to this city for a day from Dar es Salaam.

Northern part

Northern Tanzania is considered the most exciting country among safari lovers, ecotourism, trekking, and ethno-tourism.

It is here that the main national parks of the Northern Circle of safari ( Serengeti, Tarangire, Lake Manyara park ) are located, as well as unique geological objects, in particular, associated with tectonic activity in the area of ​​the Great African Rift, passing in this area. These include the world-famous Ngorongoro Enclosed Ecosystem Crater Caldera and Olduvai Gorge.

In addition, the northern part of the country is famous for the Kilimanjaro volcano located here, which, if desired and with special training, you can even climb. Here you can also get acquainted with the life of the indigenous Maasai people, which has become a symbol of Tanzania.

The largest city in the north of the country is Arusha. It is also considered the air gateway to Tanzania, as its airport receives as many tourists as the Dar es Salaam air harbor. On the one hand, tourists are attracted by the proximity of the Kilimanjaro volcano, located only a hundred kilometers away, and the Great African Rift, located 200 km away, on the other. It is from Arusha that trips to the Northern Circle of Tanzania National Parks usually start.

Arusha, the former capital of the East African Community and the third most populous city in Tanzania, is located on the border with Kenya at an altitude of 1,540 m, surrounded by coffee and banana plantations. The national park of the same name is located just 32 km from the city.

Moshi is a city located in northeastern Tanzania, near the Kenyan border, and is the administrative center of the Kilimanjaro region. The proximity of the Kilimanjaro volcano has contributed to the popularity of the city among tourists. Today, there are a lot of travel agencies working here, including Russian-speaking employees who can help tourists organize an ascent to the highest mountain in Africa. In the vicinity of Moshi, you can find coffee plantations and the 50 m high Materuni waterfall. The city has good restaurants, cafes, and modern shopping centers. 40 km from Mosha, there is a lake with crystal clear water fed by hot springs from underground caves. You can swim in it for a fee.

Western part

In this part of the country, there are the African Great Lakes Tanganyika and Victoria, which all travelers in Tanzania are eager to see. They visit the island national park Rubondo on Lake Victoria and the national parks of Gombe, Mahal Mountains, Katavi near Tanganyika.

A large city in the north of the country is Mwanza, the region’s administrative center of the same name and a port on Lake Victoria. There is an international airport, a railway station, and ferry connections with the Tanzanian ports of Musoma and Bukoba and Kenya and Uganda. Cotton is grown in the vicinity of Mwanza, and fish are caught in the lake. At the beginning of the last century, gold deposits were discovered here.

Kigoma is the westernmost of the major cities in Tanzania, near the border with Burundian, the eastern shore of Lake Tanganyika, and at an altitude of 775 m. The Transstanzanian railway ends here, starting in Dar es Salaam, which goes from the ocean to the lake through Dodoma. The local port is considered one of the largest in Central Africa. By ferries from Kigoma, you can get to Zambia, Burundi, Congo.

central part

The central part of Tanzania is formed by a large plateau with a landscape in a bush. Safari lovers come here to visit Mikumi National Park, where tourists can completely immerse themselves in nature.

Also in the center of the country is the nominal capital of the African state – Dodoma. Representatives of the authorities come here only for the weekend, still working in Dar es Salaam. At the same time, the city is very peculiar: there are universities, many entertainment institutions, restaurants and shops, towering skyscrapers, vineyards in the vicinity, thanks to which Dodoma is considered a promising developing center of winemaking. You can see the city from above from the Lion Rock.

Another large city in central Tanzania is Tabora, which is considered a major religious center of the country: the Catholic Archdiocese, the Anglican Episcopate, and the Western Diocese, the Moravian Brothers. The city dates back to the beginning of the 19th century. There is also an airport and a large railway station in Tabor. The city is completely pedestrianized.

South part

In the south of Tanzania, the so-called Southern Highlands is a sparsely populated area with a mountainous landscape formed by the Eastern Rift. There are two very famous national parks far beyond Tanzania – Ruaha and Selous.

Selous occupies almost 5% of the entire far from a small territory of the country; a vast number of species and individuals of African animals are protected in it. Elephants alone are home to about 50,000 individuals.

Iringa is a city in southern Tanzania, founded in the 19th century, and the center of tea production. The surroundings of Iringa are attractive for mountains of unusual shape and rock paintings and the proximity of the most beautiful national parks. So, to the west of the city on the river of the same name, there is a large Ruaha Park, to the east – the famous Selous and Udzungwa Mountain Park with unique flora and endemic fauna.

Mbeya is another city in the south of the country, the region’s administrative center of the same name. Mbeya is located at an altitude of 1,600 to 2,400 m above sea level, at the western spurs of the Kipengere Mountains. The city is notable because eight rivers flow through its territory: Sisimba, Nzovue, Imeta, Khamzia, Mfvizimo, Simba, Nkwanana, and Galaga. The latter two flow into the Ruach. Tomatoes, rice, maize, and bananas are grown in the vicinity of Mbeya.

Zanzibar

Zanzibar is an archipelago of 75 islands located in the Indian Ocean northeast of Dar es Salaam. The largest island – Unguja with the capital Zanzibar – is located just 40 km from the country’s coast. Historically, the archipelago developed separately under the influence of the Arabs. For a long time, it was a sultanate, and today it has broad autonomy within Tanzania.

Unguja attracts tourists primarily with beautiful sandy beaches surrounded by palm trees stretching on the shores of the turquoise ocean. It also offers diving, sailing, boating on local dhows, watching dolphins or sea turtles.

The best beaches are located in the island’s southeast, while the entertainment and nightlife area is in the north. You can also visit the old town of Stone Town with a guided tour, rich in traditional Arabic architecture and objects of the colonial era. In addition, this city is the birthplace of the cult singer Freddie Mercury, where you can visit his house-museum.

Pemba is the second-largest island in the Zanzibar archipelago, and it lies 50 km north of the city of Zanzibar. The capital of Pemba is the city of Chake-Chake. It is located 5 km west of the local airport. Pemba is famous for its extensive spice plantations, and the strait of the same name, which separates the island from the mainland, is considered the best place for deep-sea fishing: it has the wealthiest catches in all of East Africa.

Also, holidays are possible on Pemba beach, and, even though there are few equipped beaches, they are some of the best in the country. So, the most popular is the Vumavimbi beach with white coral sand, stretching for 2 km. Other recreational activities on the island include diving and ecotourism, such as visiting wild rain forests and indigenous villages.

Mafia is the main island of the archipelago of the same name, consisting of many small islets located 40 km from the country’s mainland. Even though the island has never been part of the Sultanate of Zanzibar, it is not part of the modern Tanzanian autonomy of Zanzibar, and geographically it belongs to the Zanzibar archipelago. It’s hard to believe, but back in the 19th century. The Mafia was raided by the Madagascar cannibals Sakalava.

Today the island attracts tourists with its color and originality. There is also an excellent beach holiday not far from Chole Bay, which divers also respect. There are several large hotel complexes, lodges, and apartments. In addition to diving, fishing is possible in the waters of the Mafia.

What to see

Tanzania is an amazingly diverse country. It will be interesting for lovers of various types of recreation – sightseeing, educational, beach, trekking and ecotourism, diving, etc.

sights

So, in the largest city in the country, Dar es Salaam, many places will attract foreign visitors. These include several temples (the Anglican Church of St. Alban. Catholic Cathedral of St. Joseph), the snow-white mosque of Darkhan Jamatkhan, and the President’s Palace, built in the late 19th – early 20th centuries.

Also in the city is the Nyumba ya Sanaa Art Gallery, which opened in 1972 to support local artists. The Makumbusho Village Museum, an ethnic village with actual dwellings of residents collected from all over the country. There is also the Old Boma building – the oldest in the former capital and the only surviving part of the palace of Sultan Seyid Majid (1862).

In addition, the Botanical Garden deserves attention and colorful markets  – for example, the fish Mzizima and the Sea Shell Market, located across the street from it, the Mwenge woodcarvers market Kivukoni, Kariakoo, or Magagoni markets. ).

Be sure to visit the country’s most crucial museum institution – the National Museum of Tanzania. It was founded in 1940 as a memorial museum in honor of King George V of Great Britain. Since then, it has been rebuilt and expanded several times, and today it is a museum quarter, including several buildings and a courtyard. The museum’s collection acquaints visitors with archeology, anthropology, history, ethnography, flora, and fauna of Tanzania.

Dar es Salaam has several exciting and unusual high-rise buildings in downtown Africa: the 35-story PSPF Commercial Twin Towers in glass and chrome, or the Golden Jubilee Tower with a revolving panoramic Akemi restaurant (Akemi Revolving Restaurant) on the 21st floor.

Another city in which sightseeing lovers will find a lot of enjoyment for themselves is Bagamoyo. It is located 75 km north of Dar es Salaam and is the former capital of East Africa during the German colonization. Here you can see the fort of the XIX century. With the Museum of History, the oldest building in Lucu House (1868), Livingstone Memorial, caravanserai, 14 mosques, etc.

Fans exploring the ruins of ancient buildings should go to the islands of Kilwa Kisivani and  Songa Manara, located off the coast of Tanzania, 280 km south of Dar es Salaam. These islands were inhabited from the 9th to the 19th centuries, and today there are many ruins of palaces, mosques, and fortresses.

Zanzibar landmarks

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In  Zanzibar, curious tourists will also have something to do. For example, it is worth visiting Stone Town  – Stonetown, the old part of the island’s capital. It is interesting for its unique buildings, the interweaving of narrow streets that cars, mosques, bazaars cannot pass, etc. Here, in Stonetown, is the Anglican Church, built-in 1887 in several architectural styles, and the House of Miracles – a former Sultan’s palace with a museum. Tourists can also go to the Livingston House built in 1860, from which the explorer David Livingston went on his last expedition.

Natural objects

Tanzania has several natural sites that all travelers are eager to see.

Kilimanjaro (translated from Swahili – “the mountain that sparkles”) – “Crown of Tanzania,” the highest mountain in Africa (5,895 m), towering over the Masai plateau and covered with a snow cap. She has become a tangible symbol of the country. About 15,000 people climb Kilimanjaro every year.

The mountain is a stratovolcano with molten lava just 400 meters below the crater of the central peak of Kibo. In addition to the occasional gas emissions, the volcano is not very active now. Kilimanjaro is located on the territory of the national park of the same name.

Meru Volcano is the second largest volcano after Kilimanjaro in Tanzania, located in the Arusha National Park. Climbing is possible only with special permits. The last time Meru, whose height is 4,566 m, erupted in 1877, and since then has shown no signs of activity.

Ol-Doinyo-Lengai volcano is another mountain in Tanzania, also located in the Arusha National Park, which translates as “Mountain of God.” The volcano is 2,962 m high and is one of the most active in Africa and the only active carbonatite volcano globally. During the eruption, “cold” lava (with a temperature two times lower than in other volcanoes in the world) of unusual black color is thrown onto the surface, which quickly solidifies and forms unique shapes.

Another important attraction of Tanzania is the Ngorongoro crater, which arose 2.5 million years ago due to the collapse of a giant volcano. Its edges rise 3 km above sea level, and the area is about 20,000 hectares, the diameter of the crater itself is 19 km. Ngorongoro includes a complex of natural sites near the African Great Rift, close to the border with Kenya. Previously, the hole was part of the Serengeti Nature Reserve, but now it is an independent natural object called the Ngorongoro Conservation Area.

A feature of this area is that thanks to an insurmountable barrier for many animals and plants, a unique ecosystem has been formed in the crater. It is now a savannah plain, home to nearly 25,000 animals, including lions, elephants, rhinos, gazelles, buffaloes, and zebras. This vast natural park is included in the UNESCO list of the Natural Heritage of the World. In addition to the crater, its territory consists of the Olduvai Gorge, plateau, mountains, alpine forests, and lakes.

Olduvai Gorge is an area in northern Tanzania located in the Ngorongoro Protected Area. The length of the gorge is 40 km, and the total area is 250 sq. km. It is known that many important archaeological discoveries were made in it: the remains of an ancient man Homo habilis more than 2 million years old, the skull of Australopithecus, the remains of primitive tools of labor and hunting were found. In the gorge, there is a museum, “Olduvai Goj,” dedicated to anthropology and human evolution.

Jozani Forest – Jozani Chwaka Bay National Park in Zanzibar with an area of ​​44 sq. km. The red-brown colobus is protected – the rarest species of monkeys included in the Red Book. Monkeys reach a height of 45–70 cm. The length of their tail is about 90 cm. They are peaceful, have long been accustomed to tourists, and gladly make contact. Also, the Jozani forest is home to many species of endemic animals and birds.

Lakes

Tanzania is a country of lakes. On its territory, there are many reservoirs, including champions in-depth, size, and other indicators.

Lake Tanganyika

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Lake Tanganyika is one of the longest freshwater lakes on the planet. It lies within the boundaries of the East African Rift – one of the most significant geological phenomena on Earth. The length of the lake is 673 km, which is almost 40 km longer than that of Lake Baikal. Tanganyika is also the second lake in the world after Lake Baikal in-depth (1470 m), and, like Baikal, it is famous for its clear water, which allows you to see the bottom at a depth of 33 m. At the same time, one side of the reservoir is located in Tanzania, and the rest belong to neighboring countries – Burundi, Zambia, the Republic of the Congo.

Lake Malawi

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Lake Malawi is the third-largest in Africa and the ninth-largest in the world. Its length reaches 560 km, its width is 80 km, and the average depth is about 700 m. Malawi is famous for a wide variety of fish – there are up to 1,000 species of it. The lake is a popular fishing spot, and local fishers provide catch for all the surrounding settlements. There are also crocodiles in the lake and whooper eagles along the shores.

Lake Natron has located 240 km from Arusha, and it is one of the most unusual places in the country: the water in it is colored in shades from blood red to deep orange due to microorganisms living in it. Vapors from the saline lake scare away predators, so many small animals and whole flocks of pink flamingos settle on the shores. There are several types of fish in the water.

Lake Manyara is another habitat for a large number of pink flamingos. The population of these birds is so extensive here that you can see a solid pink spot on the water from afar. In addition to flamingos, over 400 species of other feathered inhabitants settle on the banks of Manyara, many of which are unique. Here you can find hornbill, marabou, stork, pelican, ibis, crane, and cormorant. The surrounding area is home to baboons, elephants, lions, and hippos.

Lake Victoria is one of the seven Great African Lakes and is located in three African states – Tanzania, Kenya, and Uganda. Its area is 68,800 sq. km. Several densely populated cities have been built on the shores of the lake, in which more than 30 million people live. The equator border passes along the lake. Industrial shipping is developed in the water area, and there is a ferry connection between the countries.

Intresting Places To Go

Kiwengwa Beach

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Kiwengwa Beach, being one of the most popular beaches in the last decade on the island of Zanzibar in Tanzania, is rightfully considered one of the most beautiful and unusual beaches on the east coast of Zanzibar. Each beach on the island is unique, and so is Kiwengwa Beach.

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In the distant past, this coast did not enjoy much recognition among tourists coming to the island, but now this heavenly place has become the most visited. Many people like to compare Kiwengwa Beach with the beaches of the Maldives. One of the main advantages of Kiwengwa is the lowest prices for tours and accommodation. Near the coast itself is a local village called Kiwengwa.

Kiwengwa Beach is a reasonably expansive coastline, which is covered with fine white and immaculate sand. There are absolutely no pebbles here. The entrance to the sea is shallow. The sea itself is similarly straightforward and turquoise. There are practically no waves, like on other beaches of Zanzibar. Tall palm trees grow along the entire coast, which makes this beach especially attractive.

Paje beach

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Page Beach is one of the most famous and beautiful beaches located on the island of Zanzibar in Tanzania near  Jambiani Beach and washed by the Indian Ocean. Zanzibar has recently become especially popular due to its white beaches and turquoise sea, and they are among the top best beaches in the world, along with the Seychelles and Maldives. All beaches are entirely different in terms of infrastructure and active recreation. Therefore they are suitable for other pastimes.

The Page coast is a broad, quite long, and sandy strip. The sand on Paje Beach is white, clean, and refined. The seawater is incredibly clear and has an emerald color. The entrance to the sea is shallow and also sandy. Tall palm trees grow along the beach. The ocean is generally calm, and there are no strong waves.

Located on the east coast, Paje Beach is prone to ebb and flow. Despite this, the beach is trendy due to its beauty and uniqueness inherent in every beach in Zanzibar. During low tide, there is an opportunity to see the bottom of the ocean and even walk on it. It is recommended to wear special rubber shoes, as you may unexpectedly stumble upon sea urchins or small corals. At low tide, you have to walk tens of meters to a depth to swim a little, not to mention to swim.

Kendwa Beach

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Kendwa Beach is one of the most popular beaches on Zanzibar Island in the Indian Ocean. Kendwa Beach rightfully occupies the second place of honor after Nungwi Beach, which is located close to each other in the northern part of Zanzibar, only about half an hour on foot. Kendwa Beach is located near the village of the same name.

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Zanzibar, as a new tourist destination, has already won the hearts of many beach lovers. As in the Bounty ad, it is here that the sea is turquoise, and the beaches are so white, like a heavenly place. Beach holidays on the island of Zanzibar are considered one of the best in the world.

The coast of Kendwa Beach, like other beaches of the island, is a relatively wide strip of fine white and very clean sand, which is a pleasure to walk on. The sea is warm and turquoise. The sea entrance is shallow and covered with sand, and there are no stones, algae, or shells. The beach is ideal for families with children, it is calm, and there are no noisy parties and other night festivities. It was only surrounded by tall tropical palms and scenic ocean views. The low tide is minimal here.

Travel

Vacations Forever: 5 Best Resort Towns You Should Move to ASAP

Do you want to be on vacation all year long? Fewer people are using their part-time vacation homes as primary residences nowadays, but that doesn’t mean it couldn’t be a great choice for you.

Let’s go through the top resort towns you should move to if you want to be permanently on vacation.

1. Jackson Hole, United States

If you’re a big fan of skiing, you’re sure to enjoy Jackson Hole, Wyoming. Jackson Hole has very low crime rates, so it’s a safe place to live if you have a family.

It’s also home to some excellent schools, so you don’t need to be worried about your children’s education. However, Jackson Hole does have high costs of living, particularly for a city in a less populated state.

2. Estepona, Spain

Do you enjoy the south of Spain? Consider moving to Estepona. This city, which is located on the Costa del Sol, is populated along the coast. There are tons of amazing water sports you can try out when you visit Estepona.

Plus, you can check out interesting museums when you live in Estepona, like the Antonio Ordóñez Museum of Bullfighting, the Ethnographic Museum, and the Paleontology Museum. And, Estepona is home to delicious restaurants, so you’ll never get tired of eating the local cuisine. Those who are looking for a place to live in Estepona should check out choosemarbella.com.

3. Cartagena, Colombia

If you’re looking for a great beach city, you’ll certainly want to consider Cartagena. There are plenty of resorts you can check out, or you can hit the beaches yourself.

Cartagena is also one of the cheaper cost of living options when it comes to beach cities. However, if you’re a vegetarian or have dietary restrictions, Colombia can be a difficult country to navigate.

4. Palm Springs, United States

Palm Springs is an interesting resort city. It’s extremely popular with seniors and members of the LGBTQ community (along with, of course, people who fall under both categories).

Palm Springs is the perfect place to live for people who love golfing or playing tennis. But be forewarned, you’ll need a car to get around Palm Springs since things are spread out and public transportation can be limited.

5. Todos Santos, Mexico

While Cabo San Lucas is one of the most popular resort city choices out there, it’s probably not a place you want to live long term. So, why not try out one of the neighboring towns? Todos Santos is one great option.

Todos Santos is home to a great community of artists, so people who love creativity won’t want to miss out. Plus, Todos Santos is one of the safest resort towns out there. And, the city is becoming more and more popular, so you’ll be trendy by moving to Todos Santos.

Move to These Resort Towns Today

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What are you waiting for? Any of these resort towns are a great option for your next stage in life.

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Travel

Estonia Travel Guide: Best Places to Visit And Things To Do

Estonia is one of the brightest, most versatile, and diverse countries in northern Europe. Situated on the eastern coast of the Baltic Sea and washed by the waters of the Gulfs of Riga and Finland, Estonia offers tourists an incredible selection of natural landscapes, ancient monuments, and architectural wonders. Millennia of history, cultural traditions, lively and fascinating, historic cities, castles, and fortresses of the Crusader era, museums, and elegant museums from the time of the Empire. Two thousand five hundred islands, virgin forests and National parks, lakes, swamps, meteorite craters, and hundreds of kilometers of beaches – this is all Estonia!

With the latest technological advances, Estonia offers a unique cocktail of experiences where all the ingredients are perfectly matched. Excursions, entertainment, historical routes, shopping, gastronomic wonders, spa hotels, and the best beaches of the Baltic Sea – whatever plan you go on vacation, Estonia will undoubtedly bring them to life.

Despite its modest size, Estonia can surprise even the experienced traveler. It is easily accessible from any corner of Europe – by air, land, and water. Tallinn, the delightful and ancient capital of Estonia, and the main cities of Sweden and Finland are only hours apart. Guests from Warsaw will be delivered by a comfortable bus, and residents of St. Petersburg should not be late for the evening train. Breakfast can be ordered in the heart of Tallinn.

Magical Tallinn, an actual teleport city, a time machine in action.
The entire old town is included in the UNESCO World Heritage List as an example of conservation in northern Europe.

From a bird’s eye view, its shape repeats the heart – this is probably why it regularly steals hearts from impressionable tourists!

It is enough to climb one of the observation platforms to leave your own there, and there are many of them in the city.

And then walk the whimsically twisted streets, admiring the ancient fortress walls, towers, and underground passages – the Tallinn fortress is more than 700 years old, and it is also considered the standard of medieval architecture.

In addition to the fortress, the historic part of Tallinn will offer ancient temples, medieval mansions, museums, and, of course, restaurants – to celebrate your acquaintance with the city tastefully, and you have a choice of 1001 restaurants. Many of them have earned the laurels of the best in northern Europe.

The second most important city in the country is Tartu. It is considered the intellectual capital of Estonia, and it is not for nothing that its foundation is attributed to Prince Yaroslav the Wise. The oldest university, the most picturesque ruins of the cathedral, the most beautiful Botanical Garden, and the most “advanced” museums are located here. Another reason to visit Tartu is fairs, festivals, and other entertainment events. Thanks to the university and the student body, it is also the funniest city in Estonia.

In Narva, Rakvere, and Põltsamaa, ancient fortresses and majestic castles fans should take a ride.

Life here is quiet and unhurried, and only occasionally, the city’s peace is disturbed by music festivals and historical reconstructions.

The “summer” capital of Estonia, stylish and bright, will offer its guests spa hotels, health resorts on the shores of the Gulf of Finland, a pretty port with yachts, and the Old Town of the Hanseatic League.

But the main thing for tourists who come here is eight kilometers of sandy beach, the best in the country.

Those who love everything at once should go to Haapsalu. One of the most famous spa resorts, renowned for its traditions and admirers, Haapsalu also has a worthy historical dimension.

A medieval castle and an old cathedral, a vibrant Old Town, the Seaside Promenade – culture is perfectly combined with vacation motives.

And, of course, you cannot leave Estonia without seeing its islands. Choose the largest and most beautiful island of Saaremaa and its capital, old Kuressaare. The local Bishop’s Castle is considered the most harmonious in the country, and the climate is one of the best on the coast.

In short, why would you not come to Estonia – to have fun, improve your health, or intellectually enrich yourself, you will have a great vacation. Estonia will take care of this!

History

Estonian history is a journey of thousands of years. This northern country has managed to preserve the traditions and customs of its ancestors, Viking sagas, and tales of overseas kings while remaining a modern European state.

Estonia: the beginning of the beginnings

Historical evidence of life on these lands can be found already in the 9th millennium BC. The appearance of the first people on the territory of modern Estonia is associated with the end of the last known ice age. According to archaeologists, the oldest site of primitive people appeared on the banks of the Pärnu River, not far from Sindi, approximately in 9500 BC. There are several such settlements. They all belong to the Kund culture.

This ancient cultural stratum existed until the 5th millennium BC and is named after the Estonian city of Kunda. Its influence spread to the eastern Baltic states, Poland, and southern Finland. The settlements of hunters and anglers used stone tools of labor and defense, which are found in many archaeologists, right up to the Mesolithic period.

Over the millennia, cultural layers have changed, and along with them – the traditions of the peoples inhabiting these lands. Already in the third millennium BC, the inhabitants of the settlements began to raise livestock, and by the first millennium, this trade became the main activity of the settlers.

The path to the emergence of statehood

Three thousand years ago, the inhabitants of the territories that make up modern Estonia chose a sedentary lifestyle. As a rule, the new settlers preferred the coastal regions, and here the first settlements were built, fortified, and defended. Their traces can be found to this day on the island of Saaremaa, and these are Ridala and Asva, as well as the settlement of Iru near Tallinn.

At the same time, sea and land contacts with neighbors begin to develop. Archaeologists designate this period as the culture of stone burials. It is associated with the resettlement of the ancestors of the Germans from Scandinavia.

Estonia, at the beginning of our era, is the land of agriculture and cattle breeding. Already in the early Middle Ages, customs and traditional ways of rural life appeared, which Estonians managed to preserve to this day. Many historic villages still exist today.

The early Middle Ages are a crucial period in the formation of Estonia. New, fortified settlements are being built, a system of administrative registration of territories has been formed, and a small farm is taken as a unit of measurement – a typical family farm. There are still many of them in Estonia. The entire territory of the state is divided into 8 regions and counties, these are Virumaa, Läanemaa, Rävala, Saaremaa, Sakala, Ugandi, Harju County, Järvamaa.

By this period, an early feudal model of society was formed, where elders ruled the lands. The major Estonian epic, which tells the story of the medieval giant Kalevipoeg, was written just in the spirit of that time.

In the same historical period, around 1030, the campaign of Prince Yaroslav the Wise began in the northern lands. He founded the city of Yuryev, present-day Tartu.

A little later, local tribes recaptured Tartu. In the following centuries, the ancient Estonians, on the one hand, and the inhabitants of Pskov with Novgorod, on the other, regularly “exchanged pleasantries.”

Such raids on neighbors were considered in the Order of things. One of them even went down in history. It is known that the Estonians conflicted with the Scandinavian Vikings. The inhabitants of the largest Estonian island – Saaremaa, mainly distinguished themselves in this confrontation.

Possessing a solid fleet at that time, the Oeselians, that is, the islanders kidnapped the Norwegian Queen Astrid and her son, Prince Olaf.

Subsequently, it was canonized, and one of the most outstanding examples of medieval architecture in Estonia, St. Olaf’s Church, was named in its part.

The Estonian Vikings are also credited with the destruction of the Swedish capital of Sigtuna at the beginning of the 12th century. Visiting the island of Saaremaa, you can see with your own eyes the treasures of the Vikings, which were found here in many.

The Early Middle Ages: From the Crusaders to the Reformation

The beginning of the Middle Ages in Estonia is associated with the spread of Christianity. The faith of Christ came to these lands later than to central Europe, and if at the beginning these were missionary movements, then the planting of a new religion took place with fire and sword. Various organizations – the Teutonic Order, the Pope, German archbishops, Denmark, and the Kingdom of Sweden – advocated for Estonia’s conversion to Catholicism. Pagan ancestor cults have always been extreme in these parts, so the Northern Crusade decided to take drastic measures. In history, he remained under the name of Livonian.

The crusaders reached the Estonian lands by 1208. And in 1217, the battle of Viljandi took place, where the Estonians were defeated. Two years later, the territories of northern Estonia were conquered by the Danes, the south of the state began to belong to the German Order of the Swordsmen.

As a result of the conquests, these lands fell under the control of the powerful Livonian Order, which had occupied a substantial part of the modern Baltic.

At the same time, the Danish king granted Tallinn, which was considered a pearl among cities, the privileges of the Lübeck city law.

According to these laws, the capital of Estonia, like other cities of the Hanseatic League, was governed until the beginning of the twentieth century.

The conquered lands were transformed into bishoprics. Some of them were subordinate to the supreme authority in Riga. Denmark ruled others.

Of course, this did not consider the interests of the local population, and conflicts were inevitable.

The most famous uprising was St. George’s Night, which marked the Peasant War of Liberation beginning.

The riots, which the Danish authorities could not cope with, forced them to sell the land to the Teutonic Order. The era of German rule in Estonia began.

German landlords wielded tremendous power here for the next 700 years. The territories of modern Estonia and Latvia are called Livonia – a medieval community of interconnected small principalities that were part of the German church territories of the Holy Roman Empire. The feudal system formed in medieval Estonia put German knights and Catholic bishops at the pinnacle of power.

The rights and freedoms of residents were constantly infringed upon, right up to the introduction of serfdom. Taxes and taxes reached unprecedented levels, and all administrative and judicial power belonged to the German magistrates. At the same time, the Estonians themselves, who constituted the majority of the population, remained predominantly peasants and did not have personal freedom.

In large cities, merchant guilds and artisan communities were formed, and Rewal – modern Tallinn, Dorpat, now the city of Tartu, Pernau, familiar to us as Pärnu, and Viljandi were part of the powerful Hanseatic League. This commercial and defensive amalgamation of merchant guilds and merchant cities quickly became a monopoly in northern Europe.

Traces of those times are still easy to find on the streets of Tallinn.

Walking through the Old Town, pay attention to the medieval warehouses, equipped with hooks sticking out above the attic for lifting loads.

Perhaps due to the eternal conflict of interests of the trading cities with their merchants and the Catholic clergy represented by the German bishops, the Reformation movement in Estonia received support.

The middle of the 16th century was accompanied by riots, where ordinary people revolted against the Catholic clergy.

One of the manifestos of the Reformation, which the locals supported, was the holding of divine services and the publication of books in Estonian.

Middle-Ages: from the Livonian War to the Russian Empire

The sixteenth-century turned out to be a turning point – the Livonian Order, the Grand Duchy of Lithuania, the Russian tsar, Sweden, and the Danish kingdom started a major conflict over the division of territories. It remains in history as the Livonian War. Estonia became one of those lands for which they fought. Both the population and the economic component of the cities suffered greatly during the hostilities. As a result, the state was divided between Sweden, the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth, and Denmark.

Later, by the middle of the 17th century, all the territories of modern Estonia were ceded to the Kingdom of Sweden. The foundation of the University of Tartu, one of the oldest in Europe, dates back to this time. A significant event took place in 1632, at the direction of the Swedish king Gustav II Adolf.

Until the end of the 17th century, the economic stability of Estonia was ensured by trade. Large cities – Narva, Tallinn, Tartu, stood at the crossroads of trade routes, through which goods went to Europe or Russia and back. The agricultural sector also functioned well, and crafts were developing.

The Great Northern War changed the balance of power in the region. It ended in 1721 with the surrender of Sweden, and the Estonian lands came under the control of the Russian Empire.

Estonia as part of Russia

Most of the Baltic territories in the middle of the 18th century were ceded to Russia. Northern Estonia turned into Revel province, and southern lands, together with Latvia, formed Livonia. Emperor Peter the Great restored the rights of the German nobility, and they constituted a solid layer in the highest authorities. In religion, complete freedom was also allowed for both the Lutheran faith and the Russian Orthodox Church.

In the spheres of culture and education, progress was observed, books, newspapers, and magazines were published in Estonian, educational societies were actively working, defending the rights of the people, and literacy of the population was almost universal.

The population also recovered, undermined by wars and epidemics.

An important historical milestone was the abolition of serfdom by Tsar Alexander the First. It happened in 1816.

In the middle of the 19th century, Estonia and the rest of the empire entered the era of capitalism.

The industry developed by leaps and bounds, mechanical engineering, textile, and agricultural industries formed the basis of the economy.

Success in the economic field and the development of educational programs contributed to the birth of the Estonian national movement.

Towards a free Estonia

Activists of the national movement, formed at the end of the 19th century, demanded equal rights for Germans and indigenous people, Estonians, whose interests were infringed upon. These societies united writers, educators, journalists, representatives of the intellectual elite. They fought not only for legal rights but also for restoring traditions such as the Song Festival, ethnographic festivals, the first Estonian theater. However, despite these bold attempts, the Russians and Germans remained society’s economic and political elite.

In the wake of patriotic movements and extreme provocations, strikes and unrest broke out throughout Estonia. The tsarist government responded with harsh repression, but the uprisings continued in 1916, leading to the 1917 revolution. The interim government was entrusted with managing the former Estland province.

Riots continued this time between Estonian nationalists and Bolsheviks. However, now the First World War intervened in the plans of the future Soviet government. Estonia remained neutral in this conflict, demanding independence.

The wish came true on February 24, 1918 – finally, Estonia became a free state.

The first Estonian republic existed until 1940. The Second World War, its sad consequences, and the subsequent incorporation into the USSR lasted almost fifty years.

Estonia regained independence in 1991 with a rally known as the Singing Revolution.

Over the past thirty years, the state has been actively developing.

Tallinn’s old town was renovated for the 100th anniversary of independence.

Estonia is a member of the UN, the European Union, and NATO, a technically advanced and progressive country.

The system of electronic elections exists and is actively used here, and Skype was invented.

In 2002, Tallinn hosted the Eurovision Song Contest, and in 2018, the anniversary year for Estonian independence, many museums, palaces, and cultural sites were renovated.

The Tallinn Christmas market was recognized as the most beautiful in Europe by the European Best Destinations Association in the same year.

And regardless of political trends, time of year, and the weather outside the window, this beautiful, diverse, and close country is always waiting for you to visit!

Climate and weather in Estonia

Weather in cities

Several factors influence the Estonian climate. The proximity of the Baltic Sea, the Gulf Stream, Atlantic cyclones, temperate continental regions, fifteen hundred islands – this combination can be safely called unique.

The warmest month of the year is July, and the coldest is February.

However, the transitions between seasons are smooth and comfortable, and the country’s inhabitants are unfamiliar with both severe touches of frost and sweltering heat.

Estonia, located both on the mainland and on the islands, is surrounded by water on three sides. A large part of it is swamped, and the sea and the unusual natural relief create their microclimate. The weather in Estonia is most often described as humid and calm, relatively mild.

Winter in Estonia starts as expected – in December. As a rule, snowfalls at this time, which greatly adorn the landscapes, and there is a light frost conducive to walking.

It is one of the most popular tourist seasons of the year and is the time to celebrate Christmas and New Year.

January and February are colder and frosty, and there is a lot of snow. However, the air temperature rarely drops below – 6 … 8 ° C.

The weather is conducive to winter fun – ski runs, skating rinks in parks, sledding, fishing are open.

Estonians are a very athletic nation, and most of the time, joining their winter walks is entirely free.

Spring comes to Estonia not earlier than the second half of March. At this time of the year, frosts are still possible, mainly at night, but the sun is peeping more often.

April is also a fantastic month; May is considered more successful for a visit to the country. Spring can be seen in all its glory – in blooming parks, meadows outside the city, and bright city flower beds. Walking around Old Tallinn, do not deny yourself the pleasure of sitting at a table in an outdoor cafe – in May, such gatherings in the air are already quite comfortable.

If the purpose of your visit is to see summer Estonia, plan your trip in July. June is more like a warm spring than our usual summer. However, the month is exceptionally sunny and not too grainy.

The best time to visit Estonia is in June and July.

July is considered the warmest, sunniest, and driest month of the year. The air temperature warms up to + 22 … 24 ° C. + 30 ° C in Estonia is an abnormal heat. Such temperature cataclysms do not happen often.

Despite quite hot daily temperatures for Estonia, summer nights remain cool.

This feature of the local climate dictates to tourists their own rules for collecting luggage – a light jacket or sweater is required even in the middle of summer.

July and August are perfect for exploring Estonian cities and relaxing on their beaches.

The water temperature off the coast of Tallinn is usually around + 20 ° C, in rare cases warming up a few degrees higher.

Another good season to visit Estonia is autumn.

September usually welcomes guests of the country with dry, warm, and sunny weather.

This is an excellent time for both city walks and outdoor recreation. The first frosts and rains come with the onset of October, and although the average temperature is around + 10 ° C during the day, the mood is spoiled by prolonged precipitation.

It is freezing and wet in November. This is the time of real northern autumn, with fogs and falling snow. A warm hat and mittens are a must, or you can keep warm at the numerous spas, as well as at Christmas markets, which also start in November.

Estonian cities and regions

The territory of Estonia, divided in the 13th century by the knights of the Livonian Order into eight historical regions – Maakondas in Estonian, today, with the recognition of independence, has been divided into 15 counties. Almost all of them, to a greater or lesser extent, are of some interest to travelers.

Northern Estonia

The country’s history in stone can be studied in the regions of Harju, Lääne-Viru County, Ida-Virumaa. Here you will find the ruins of ancient castles, noble estates from the times of the empire, palaces, and all this against the backdrop of dunes and seemingly pristine coniferous forests. The main cities of the north of the country are the capital Tallinn, the seaside Paldiski, Maardu with its lake.

In addition to the beauties of ancient Tallinn, with its great fortress and streets of the Old Town, Harju County attracts with its excellent preservation of medieval buildings.

Temples and fortresses, historical landowners’ estates – manors, the Vasalemma palace, and park complex.

The views are also in order here – 17 landscape zones protecting unique natural monuments, including karst fields, heaths, springs, swamps, picturesque coastal cliffs.

County Ida-Viru County is famous for its ancient megaliths in Lahemaa National Park, on the coast of the Gulf of Finland.

Noble estates, the “village of captains” Käsmu, where the first ship of Estonian production was launched, the family estate of Admiral von Krusenstern, as well as a tour of the Neeruti National Park – you will not have time to get bored. Don’t miss Rakvere Castle – built-in 1226 by the Danes, it is perfectly preserved for its advanced age.

Ida-Viru County will appeal to nature explorers. Sea ledges – Klint, the highest waterfall in the country, the Oru landscape reserve, the most interesting in Estonia, the Alutaguse adventure park, the beaches of Lake Peipsi, and the opportunity to kayak on the Kurtna lakes.

Western Estonia

The western regions of Estonia – Saaremaa, Hiiumaa, Pärnumaa, and Läänemaa, are an opportunity to have a fantastic seaside holiday, combining vacation with viewing architectural masterpieces. In this region, sea resorts, spa centers, mud baths, and sanatoriums are concentrated.

Saaremaa county is located on the largest island in Estonia and encompasses the islets nearby. They are loved by fans of sea sports – surfing and kiting, thanks to their windy weather. And in the holiday season, you can go swimming with seals, organized by the employees of Vilsandi National Park. Do not miss the Kaali meteorite crater, which is filled with water of an unusual jade hue. The lake is round in shape, 100 meters in diameter, and you can swim in it in summer.

The capital of the county is Kuressaare. There is a sea harbor, an airport, and the Episcopal Castle, one of the most beautiful in Eastern Europe.

The Old Town has also survived in Kuressaare, with colorful historical buildings.

Surfers and beachgoers also love hiiumaa.

The second-largest island in Estonia offers tourists a picturesque coastline with a total length of 310 km, wind, and waves for fans of sea activities, as well as hiking trails.

You can walk, for example, to the Kõpu lighthouse – the most ancient navigational landmark in the Baltics.

The largest county in Estonia is Pärnumaa. Its capital, the seaside port city of Pärnu, is considered the main Baltic resort in Estonia. Perfect sandy beaches with white dunes surrounded by pine forests are found here.

Neighboring Läänemaa attracts visitors thanks to the county capital, the old town of Haapsalu. Famous for the traditions of mud therapy – the first clinic in the country was opened here, he has not lost his “qualifications” even now. Do not miss the old Kurhaus on the seaside promenade – a beautiful wooden building from the 19th century with a concert hall. And in the center of the city, you will find a 13th-century bishop’s castle, whose ruins are majestic.

Central Estonia

The center of the country is beautiful during the warm season. Gardens are blooming, historic estates are opening their doors, and landscaped parks are inviting guests. Raplamaa, Viljandi County, and Järvamaa counties offer many exciting walks.

For example, in  Raplamaa, it is suggested to visit the “Golden Ring of Raplamaa Manors.” The program includes noble estates, old churches, historical manors, which are now open as crafts centers. Hikers should pay attention to the limestone plateau in Maryamaa parish.

Viljandi County is visited for the sake of the central city – Viljandi, with a very ancient and venerable history. The first settlements here date back to the 5th century BC, the Viking Age. Written references to the city date back to 1154, and in the 12th century, the first permanent settlement appeared on the site of Viljandi. At the beginning of the XIII century, these lands were conquered by order of the Swordsmen, and already in 1224, a stone fortress was erected here, which was considered the largest in the Baltic. The defense and the city were called Fellin. Under this name, they were part of the Hanseatic League. 

In  Järva will appeal to fans of nature and lovers of history. Here you can visit the historic Albu estate and then walk in the Kõrvemaa landscape reserve. Bird watchers will especially appreciate this park; you can watch rare black storks and golden eagles here.

Eastern Estonia

The legendary shores of Lake Peipsi are the birthplace of the Tartumaa and Jõgevamaa regions. The historical battles of the Russian-Swedish and the Livonian War did not pass unnoticed; numerous castles and fortresses in the east of the country have survived to this day in the form of picturesque ruins.

County Tartu County  – the citadel of knowledge and scientific progress. Tartu, the region’s central city and the second most populous in the country, boasts a rich history. One of the oldest in Eastern Europe, Tartu was founded by Yaroslav the Wise in 1030 as the city of Yuryev. In addition to the university, one of the oldest in Europe, Tartu is famous for theaters, museums, architectural monuments, pretty streets of the Old Town.

The vicinity of Lake Peipsi, located nearby, will be an excellent competitor to seascapes.

You can come here for a whole vacation and not have time to see all the exciting places in the area – ancient manors, the famous “Onion Route” – a historical route through museums and castles, the beautiful Alatskivi Palace.

The amazing glacial landscapes of Jõgevamaa county take us back to the time of the epic about the exploits of Kalevipoeg, the giant warrior.

Mysterious protected forests, lakes, giant boulders, as if forgotten here by a strong man – everything breathes with legends.

One of the most exciting places in the county is the town of Põltsamaa. Once there was the capital of the Livonian Kingdom, with its castle, which welcomes guests in the city center today. By the way, Põltsamaa is also considered the wine capital of Estonia – fruit and berry and fruit wines are produced here, arranging colorful festivals and fairs in summer.

South Estonia

In winter, the southern regions of Valga County, Võrumaa, and Põlvamaa are especially popular with Estonian residents and visitors. The best ski resorts are located here, and the hilly terrain is favorable for snowmobiling and sledding. Valga County is also popular with professionals – it hosts the qualifying rounds of the European Championships and the World Cup in cross-country skiing. In summer, the freestyle jumps are used as an observation deck.

Põlvamaa will appeal to fans of ethno-tourism. Here are the settlements and villages that have preserved the traditional way of life, all against the backdrop of marvelous nature. National parks offer hiking trails of any degree of difficulty, and you can walk along swamps, cliffs, and canyons.

An additional highlight is meteorite craters, and there are four of them in the area. Moreover, the diameter of the deepest is about 80 meters.

Võrumaa county will appeal to wildlife researchers. The main pride of the region is the Hinni Canyon, a mysterious valley that gives rise to the Rõuge Trail. Having passed it to the end, you will see the pasture of the indigenous abodes of these places – the reindeer.

The largest lake in Estonia and the country’s highest point, Suur Munamägi Hill, 318 meters high, is also waiting for you on the route.

Where to go in Estonia

Tallinn Zoo

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The Tallinn Zoo was founded in 1939.

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Today the collection numbers over 350 animal species living on 89 hectares. The zoo’s expositions include Alpine, Central Asian, South American, Arctic, and many other zones.

The zoo is proud of the collection “Tropical House,” rare for northern latitudes: the inhabitants of the tropical jungle were settled here.

Town Hall Square

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Each ancient European city has its central square with a town hall founded in medieval times. Such areas were usually used as a gathering place during some important events and as a trading platform. Tallinn is also no exception and has its center – Town Hall Square.

Monument to the battleship “Rusalka.”

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A bronze angel on the seashore holds a cross in his hand held high above his head. He points to the place of death of the battleship “Rusalka.” The statue, created by the sculptor A. Adamson, was installed in Kadriorg Park in 1902 on the 7th anniversary of the shipwreck.

Fat Margarita Tower

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A medieval maritime city is, first of all, towers and fortress walls, in a word, structures intended to defend the city from invading invaders. Today the Great Sea Gate and the Fat Margarita have turned into monuments reminding native Tallinn residents and guests of the town about the terrible times. Fat Margarita was “born” in the 16th century: a giant armory tower (155 loopholes) with a diameter of 25 meters and a height of 20 meters was erected next to the Sea Gate.

Kadriorg Palace and Park

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Kadriorg is considered a prestigious area of ​​Tallinn. The tranquil area is famous for its rich history and the main attractions – the Kadriorg Palace and park. Now on its territory is the residence of the Estonian president and several embassies of other states. The preserved wooden houses are also of interest; Estonia’s prominent figures of literature and art lived in them in the 1920s – 1930s.

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Aquapark in Tallinn

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Aquapark in Tallinn is a water spa at the Kalev Spa hotel located in the center of the “old town” next to Kanuti Park. Town Hall Square is just a 7-minute walk from the water park. In addition, within walking distance of many attractions is the center of Tallinn – Dominican Monastery, Alexander Nevsky Cathedral, Dome Cathedral, St. Peter and Paul Church, St. Nicholas Church, Church of the Holy Spirit, Church of St. Nicholas the Wonderworker, Toompea Castle, Kiek-de- Kyok and other objects.

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Czech Travel Guide: Best Places to Visit And Things To Do

The Czech Republic, or the Czech Republic, is a central European state bordering Poland in the north, Germany in the west, Austria in the south, and Slovakia in the east. The capital of the Czech Republic is the city of Prague, which is one big attraction in the open air. The country covers an area of ​​78 866 km², has 10 610 947 people (2016). The largest cities are Prague, Brno, Pilsen, Ostrava.

According to legend, the ancestors of today’s Czechs, led by their leader Czech, settled on the territory of the modern Czech Republic, which has been inhabited since the Stone Age. The first chronicle mentions settlements on the Czech land date back to the end of the 9th century when princes from the Přemyslid clan united these lands. In the Middle Ages, the Czech kingdom had significant influence. Still, the religious conflicts that arose (the Hussite wars in the 15th century and the Thirty Years’ War in the 17th century) significantly weakened it. Soon the kingdom fell under the rule of the Habsburgs and became part of Austria-Hungary.

After the end of the First World War and the fall of Austria-Hungary in 1918, the Czech Republic, Slovakia, and Subcarpathian Rus united into the independent republic of Czechoslovakia. Germany occupied the country in 1939. At the end of World War II, the Czech Republic found itself in the Soviet camp, which predetermined its history until 1989. On January 1, 1993, Slovakia separated from the Czech Republic, and both countries gained independence. Today’s Czech Republic has been a NATO member since 1999, and it has been a member of the European Union since 2004.

The Czech Republic is one of the most popular tourist destinations in Europe. Regardless of the season, the country annually is visited by about 50 million people—the choice of tourist routes in the Czech. Republic is so extensive that it is worthwhile to decide in advance which direction of tourism interests you at the moment and which should be left for subsequent visits. The most attractive are historical routes since the country has many objects that will be of interest to fans of antiquity: castles, fortresses, castles. Some cities in the Czech Republic are included in the UNESCO World Cultural Heritage List.

Climate and weather in the Czech Republic

The climate of the Czech Republic is moderate continental with features of the sea. Summer in the region is warm, with daytime temperatures of + 23 … + 25 ° С, with a lot of precipitation. Winter is cloudy, cool, in the day around 0 … + 3 ° С, and at night -5. -2 ° С, snow often falls. In winter, ski resorts start operating in the mountains. 

The minimum precipitation occurs in spring and autumn, and this time is considered the most comfortable for excursions and travel around the country.

The weather in the Czech Republic rarely surprises: in summer, as a rule, it is not hot, and in winter, it is moderately calm, so tourists visit the country all year round. 

  • Pilsen Region  – This region attracts tourists with its old Baroque buildings, nature reserves, folklore, and delicious food. Local beer is considered one of the most delicious varieties in the whole Czech Republic and beyond.
  • The South Bohemian Region is the greenest and most picturesque region of the Czech Republic, with a rich history and unique architectural sights. A third of its area is covered with forests and seven thousand pounds.
  • Stí nad Labem  – this area is also called the “Gateway to the Czech Republic,” as it is surrounded by hills – former volcanoes, from the tops of which an impressive view of the whole Czech Republic opens. The region will be attractive for those who like to explore ancient cities and their architecture. And for those who prefer rest among the picturesque nature – there are many reserves here. Thanks to volcanic soils, the region grows the highest quality hops in the world.
  • Liberec Region  – the region is famous for its magnificent nature and ski resorts. It is also considered the birthplace of a precious stone – Czech garnet.
  • Hradec Králové Region  – the region is home to the highest mountains of the Czech Republic – the Krkonoše with numerous ski resorts, a large number of castles and fortresses, and the most significant Czech zoo – an authentic African safari.
  • Pardubice Region  – looks like heaven on earth. Along with its magnificent nature, this region is proud of its history and technical monuments. On the National Stud Farm territory in Kladruby nad Labem, you can see how the white breed of Starokladruby horses is bred.
  • The Olomouc Region attracts tourists with its nature reserves and the Jeseníky Mountains with exceptional climatic conditions. This area is rich in its cultural traditions and ancient monuments.
  • The Zlín Region has Czech traditions and folklore, good wine and plum brandy, delicious food, and mysterious castles. Visit the local town of Zlín with its unusual architecture in the Czech Republic. Thanks to the local businessman Tomáš Bati, who invited the most distinctive architects in the 1930s, the city has become a natural monument to functionalism.
  • South Moravian Region  – This hospitable region is considered a wine-growing region, as 96% of the Czech vineyards are located here. A region with beautiful picturesque nature and UNESCO Intangible Heritage Sites.
  • Central Bohemian Region  – the atmosphere of local towns and villages is created by the legacy of ancient royal dynasties, the prints of which can be found all over the region.

Old cities of the Czech Republic

In addition to castles in the Czech Republic, it is worth visiting ancient cities, in which a vast number of historical and architectural monuments are concentrated.

Czech Krumlov

Cesky Krumlov is the most famous historical area of ​​South Bohemia, located in the Sumava foothills, famous for its stunning ensemble of Gothic, Renaissance, and Baroque buildings. Cesky Krumlov Castle is the largest in the Czech Republic after Prague Castle, and it is also included in the UNESCO World Cultural Heritage List. The ensemble of the castle consists of 40 buildings and palaces, five courtyards, and a garden.

The castle on the old trade route was founded in the 1st half of the 13th century by representatives of the Vitkovich family. The architecture and the castle’s name determined its geographical location: the court was located in a loop formed by the bend of the Vltava River (die Krumme Au – crooked meadow). Podhradie got the name Latran (latus – side, side), and it was also planned to consider the river’s bends. Initially built in the Gothic style, the vast castle complex has changed – first in the Baroque style, then in the Rococo style. In the city, tourists will be interested in a garden and a park, theater, galleries, cellars. The dominant feature of the old town is the church of St. Vitus rising on the steep bank of the river. Buildings decorated in the sgraffito style, red-tiled roofs, and gilded turrets give Krumlov a unique charm and style.

Not far from Krumlov, only 32 kilometers away, there is a new (opened in 2012) attraction – a wooden observation tower at the top of Kremlin, above Lake Lipno. This tower is unique among structures of this kind for its pedestrian zone – a wooden suspended frame begins on the ground and gradually rises to the top of the building. In 2012, this site was named the best new Czech landmark.

Telc

Telč is a city on the water, Moravian Venice, whose layout is due to the presence of three artificial reservoirs and a bypass channel – the former castle moat. The city’s historical core is an old fortress, which has retained its appearance since the Middle Ages. The Gothic castle on the water was founded in the 13th century, and the building acquired its modern appearance during the reconstruction in the 16th century. The main building of the old city is a palace with rich interiors:

  • The Golden
  • Blue
  • Theater and Knights’ Halls
  • The All Saints’ Chapel
  • A treasury
  • A banquet hall decorated in the sgraffito technique

Jindrichuv Hradec

The town of Jindrichuv Hradec is home to the third-largest castle complex in the Czech Republic, built in the 13th century on the historical border between Bohemia, Moravia, and Austria. The complex’s main building is a Gothic palace with valuable paintings, the Church of St. John the Baptist with rare frescoes, and a former Minorite monastery. The city is famous for its annual classical music (Concertino Praga) and folk music (Folková růže) festivals.

Brno

Brno is the capital of Moravia and the second most important and largest city in the Czech Republic. The most recognizable symbol of Brno is the Gothic castle of Spielberg, the silhouette of which is depicted on Czech coins. The court was founded in the 13th century on the summit of the Spielberg mountain. 

Once in Brno, it is worth exploring the Moravian Gallery, the second largest museum in the Czech Republic, famous for its rich collection. The gallery, founded in 1961, contains objects of free art – not only painting, graphics, and plastic arts from ancient times to the present, but also photography, applied art, and graphic design.

Also noteworthy in Brno is the Cathedral of Saints Peter and Paul, the Basilica of the Assumption of the Virgin Mary, the Church of St. Jacob, the Town Hall, the Church of St. Michael.

Kutná Hora

The historic town of Kutná Hora, the second largest after Prague in the 14th century, became famous for its silver mines. In the 16th century, after the cessation of silver mining, its importance fell, but the town retained its charm, becoming one of the most famous tourist centers in the country. Tourists may find it interesting to visit the Chapel of All Saints, built around 1400 at a Gothic cathedral in the cemetery of the Cistercian monastery in Sedlec. As a result of the cholera epidemic of 1318 and during the Hussite wars at the beginning of the 15th century, the cemetery grew considerably. The arriving bones began to be piled up in pyramids. In 1870, by order of the Schwarzenberg’s, woodcarver Frantisek Rint decorated the chapel’s interior with bones from 40,000 skeletons, from the altar to the chandelier.

It is worth visiting Vlašský Dvor – a cultural monument of Kutnogorsk, which is a complex of buildings from the 13th – 14th centuries, once the residence of Czech kings, with an old mint; the stone palace Hradek, which today houses the Silver Museum with an exciting exposition; Cathedral of St. Barbara – Czech Notre Dame de Paris.

Plzen

Plze, the fourth largest city in the Czech Republic, located in the country’s west, stretches at the confluence of four rivers – Uslava, Uglava, Radbuza, and Mži. Pilsen is famous for the following attractions: the tallest church tower in the Czech Republic (103 m) – the tower of the Cathedral of St. Bartholomew, the cathedral itself with the late Gothic Sternberg Chapel, the Town Hall, the dungeons, the Museum of West Bohemia, the third largest synagogue in the world in the Moor-Romanesque style.

As you know, Plze is the capital of Czech brewing, and Plze beer of the Prazdroi and Gambrinus brands is brewed here. The beer is produced according to the old technology, unchanged since the century before last, and the inimitable taste to the drink, according to the Czechs, is given by the Pilsen water, its malt, and the unique storage conditions in the cellars. You can learn more about the history of the Plzeský Prazdroj brewery in the Brewery Museum.

Memorial Terezin

The Terezin Fortress was founded at the end of the 18th century at the confluence of the Laba and Ohři rivers, 5 km south of Litoměřice. During World War II, the German invaders set up a concentration camp for Jews in the fortress, the so-called Terezin ghetto, which housed a little less than 140,000 people (of whom 33,000 died while in the ghetto). Some of the Jews (88,000 people) were deported to Auschwitz and other death camps. By the end of the war, 17,247 people had survived in the ghetto. Soviet troops liberated Terezin on May 9, 1945. Today Terezín houses the Memorial to the Victims of the Concentration Camp.

Medical resorts of the Czech Republic

The Czech Republic is a recognized destination for health tourism, and the country is famous for its thermal and mineral spas, the most famous of which is Karlovy Vary. The city was founded by Emperor Charles IV century. 1358 appeared in a place where 132 mineral springs break through to the earth’s surface, 12 of which are with healing water. The resort has a glorious history; the entire world elite came here to improve their health: monarchs, prominent political figures, famous people of art. The city’s streets repeat the bends formed by the Teplaya River, across which openwork bridges are thrown. The town is decorated with picturesque buildings of different eras, parks, squares. In addition to medical procedures shown for a wide range of diseases, and pleasant walks in the bosom of nature, you can always enjoy your time here. For example, the city hosts the Karlovy Vary Film Festival – the second most important in Europe after the Cannes Film Festival.

Marianske Lazne -the second most important resort in the Czech Republic after Karlovy Vary, whose history begins in 1528 – discovered Ferdinand’s spring. Today there are about 40 mineral springs here.

Another Czech town with a spa tradition is Frantiskovy Lazne, popular mainly among women, as the local mud successfully treats infertility.

You can find out more about the country’s resorts in our article “Therapeutic spas of the Czech Republic,” which tells about the most popular places for treatment on the waters.

Water parks

Aquapark Babylon is located in Liberec and is part of the largest entertainment center in the Czech Republic Babylon. The interiors of the water park resemble antique baths, and the most popular attractions are the “wild river” and the adrenaline “space bowl.”

The AquaPalace water park is located in the village of Čestlice near Prague – it is the largest water park in Central Europe. The complex consists of the Palace of Waves, the Palace of Adventures, and Relaxation. There is a diving tunnel for lovers of deep-sea diving, and sauna lovers can visit the classic Finnish saunas, Roman baths, and Russian baths.

The Aqua-Olomouc water park is located in Olomouc and is famous for its adrenaline-pumping attractions. Visitors are also offered a massage, solarium, and tepidarium (dry heating zone).

Where to go in the Czech Republic

Prague Old Town

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The Old Town of Prague (Old Town) is the central, oldest, and most popular part of the Czech capital. Everything that Prague is associated with is concentrated here: narrow cobbled streets, unique buildings built in different architectural styles from Gothic to Art Nouveau, beautiful copper doorknobs, orange roofs, and the indescribable charm of a medieval city.

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The Charles Bridge

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Charles Bridge is a famous Prague landmark, one of the recognizable symbols of the city, so adored by tourists.

The medieval Charles Bridge over the Vltava River is a pedestrian, free entrance, open around the clock.

The bridge connects two historical districts – Stare Mesto and Mala Strana.

The length of the Charles Bridge in Prague is 515.76 meters (usually rounded up to 520 meters).

Golden Lane

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In the very center of Prague Castle, there is a picturesque street called Zlata Ulichka. Along the cobblestone pavement, there are tiny multi-colored “gingerbread” houses built into the arches of the former fortress wall.

National Park “Bohemian Switzerland”

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This reserve, which has no analogues in Europe, stretches from the town of Tisza in the Ustecky region to the Shluknovsky ledge in the Decinsky region. The park was founded on January 1, 2000, and became a Czech extension of the German Sächsische Schweiz National Park (Saxon Switzerland), founded 10 years earlier (1990). The Bohemian Switzerland Park is part of the vast natural complex of Labske Piskovce, and the main object of protection is the characteristic sandstone phenomenon – the “rocky sandstone town” of Etrschowické and Dečinské Stena, and the associated biological diversity. Tourists love to visit observation decks with unique views of sandy cliffs, bridges and castles created by nature. The park is popular with fans of active sports: climbers, cyclists, rafting and hiking enthusiasts.

Millions of years ago, the sea stretched here. Having collapsed, it left behind a unique land of high sandstone cliffs and towers, rocky arches, ravines and mountains with truncated peaks.

Wild nature, which for a long time developed without human intervention, was discovered at the end of the 18th century by two Swiss artists of the Romantic era – Adrian Zingg and Anton Graf. Depicting this land in engravings and describing in poetry, they quickly spread the fame of it throughout Europe. The sites along the Elbe River canyon have become the cradle of modern tourism, becoming one of the first actively visited tourist attractions in Europe.

One of the most famous landscape painters of all time, Caspar David Friedrich, came here for the motives of his paintings. The owners of the local estates quickly realized the attractiveness of the local dense forests and romantic outlines of the cliffs, they went to great lengths to make these places more accessible by building roads and bridges. On the Mariana Rock, the Wall of Welhelm and the Rudolph Stone, steps were made, benches were placed, and gazebos were placed on the peaks. Along the roads, new taverns and lodging places were opened for tourists, walking paths appeared, and the wild river Kamenice began to be used to move between the gorges.

Not only artists came here for inspiration. Forts of robber knights, rock towns, legends about gnomes and fairies influenced the storyteller Hans Christian Andersen, poet R.M. Rilke, composers K.M. von Weber, Richard Wagner and others.

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And today the Pravcicke Gate is a symbol of “Czech Switzerland”, conquering artists, for example, the snow-covered Silent Rocks became the scenery for the film “The Chronicles of Narnia – The Lion, the Witch and the Wardrobe”. It was here that Lucy visited the cave of the faun Tumnus, and all four brothers and sisters crossed the rocky bridge for the first time and looked at the endless forests of Narnia.

One of the main attractions of Bohemian Switzerland, along with the Pravcické Gate, is a romantic boat trip along the Quiet and Wild Canyons on the Kamenice River. It is a short but impressive boat ride with a gondolier between two sheer cliffs – in places so deep that direct sunlight hardly gets here.

This was once a serious obstacle for the inhabitants of local villages. Once in 1877, at the U Zeleného stromu tavern in the town of Hřensko, five brave souls made a bet that they would sail on rafts from the Dolskoy mill to what was then called the “end of the world”. On rafts 4 meters long, they really safely reached Hrzhensk, in fact, becoming the founders of the tourist water route. The local prince Clari-Aldringen invited specialists from Italy, under whose leadership, through the labor of over two hundred workers, these sites became available to the public. Suspended bridges were thrown here, tunnels were built with the help of explosives. On May 4, 1890, the grand opening of the “Quiet” (“Edmond’s”) canyon took place. Since then, “at the very end of the world”, in fact, nothing has changed much,

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Moravian Karst

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The Moravian Karst, or Moravian Karst, is a nature reserve, one of the largest karst massifs in Europe, located in the Czech Republic, 30 km north of Brno.

The area stretches 25 km in length. Its width in some places is 6 km. The natural park covers an area of ​​92 sq. km. The highest height of rock formations in reserve is 734 m. The lowest place of Kras is the Macokha abyss, which has 138 m with the Punkva River at the bottom. For tourists, unique bridges (Upper and Lower) were equipped over the abyss, from which a stunning and, at the same time, a terrible panorama of the gorge opens up.

The most popular among tourists are the caves of the Moravian Kras, of which there are about 1,100 pieces. Only five underground cavities are equipped for excursions in the Moravian Beauty, among which it is worth mentioning the Punkva cave, through which the Punkva underground river of the same name flows; deep cave Macokha; Katezhinskaya cave with unique limestone formations – helictites growing horizontally; the Balcarka stalactite cave and the Stolbsko-Shoshuvsky caves with spacious underground corridors. Other attractions of the Moravian Karst include the Empty Trough and Dry Trough karst canyons and the White Water Gap.

Unique flora and fauna protect the reserve. Many species of plants and animals are endemic. In some caves, ancient rock paintings have been found on the walls.

On the reserve territory, the so-called “ecological trains” run, delivering tourists to remote points of the park. Tourists should remember that it is stably cold even in summer in the caves, so it is worth bringing a set of warm clothes with you.

Dancing House in Prague

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The Dancing House in Prague is the image of a couple in dance, expressed in urban architecture. The house consists of two towers called “Ginger and Fred,” referring to the famous Hollywood dancer and actor couple Ginger Rogers and Fred Astaire. The comparison is indeed justified: one tower is straight, has the shape of a cylinder, expanding upward, and symbolizes a man. And the second tower – glass, depicts the figure of a woman with a narrow waist. In the dance, she seemed to lean against her partner. The building’s less flattering nickname is The Drunk House.

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