Romania is a country located in the southeast of Europe. It covers an area of 239 thousand square kilometers. On the territory of the state are the Carpathian Mountains and part of the Black Sea coast. The ratio of mountainous and lowland areas in the country is practically equal. The number of people living in Romania in 2017 was almost 19.6 million. The country ranks eighth in Europe in terms of population. Ninety percent are ethnic Romanians, Hungarians, Gypsies, and Germans stand out among numerous other nationalities. The majority of the population is Orthodox. Less than 10% are Catholics, Protestants, Muslims.
Under the Constitution adopted in 1991, Romania became a parliamentary republic. The Legislative Assembly consists of two chambers: the upper, the Senate, and the lower, the Chamber of Deputies. Direct secret elections of the President of the country are held every five years. Since 2014, Klaus Johannis has held this elective position.
Romania is one of the most beautiful European countries. On a third of the territory of the state are the Carpathian mountains. Mountain peaks here reach a height of 2600 meters, and some ski slopes rise to 2100 meters. There are about two dozen famous ski resorts in Romania. Part of the border runs along the Danube River. The country also has its own Black Sea coast, where there are many resort areas. In Romania, there are almost 1,500 mineral springs and more than 150 balneo-climatic resorts, on the territory of which there are mud lakes and moieties. There are many churches and monasteries in the country, most of which have a long history. Romania is rich in national parks, wildlife sanctuaries, and reserves.
The latest historical research claims that people in today’s territory of Romania lived 300 thousand years ago. Shortly before our era, some tribes settled here, migrating from the Center of Europe and the Black Sea. Mingling with the people who already lived here, several new Thracian tribes appear – the Dacians and Getae. They also created their own culture and state of Dacia. Descriptions of the Dacians and Getae have survived. They seemed to be courageous people, freedom-loving, but irrepressible in their passions and desires. In their characters, there was also such a trait as pessimism. No wonder the funeral became one of the main holidays. One should rejoice for the one who finally disappeared from this cruel and disgusting world.
In connection with the strengthening of Rome and the claims of the Romans to these lands, Dacia, in 106 AD after the conquest, turned into one of the Roman provinces. It happened under Emperor Troyan, during whose reign the Roman Empire maximized its territory. Many people from all over the Roman Empire moved here: it was necessary to settle the land, build cities, roads, border fortifications. But a little over a hundred years passed, and in 271, the Roman period was over. Historians have not yet been able to find out the real reasons why the Romans voluntarily left Dacia. But an echo of this time remained in the modern name. The word “Romania” has a connection with the Latin Roma, meaning Rome.
After the departure of the Romans, almost primitive darkness was established on the territory of the country. And this period lasts for nearly a millennium. The following centuries were characterized by the era of the great migration of peoples. Located on the path of northern and southern peoples, the country is influenced by many tribes. Huns, Goths, Avars, Bulgarians, and other peoples have visited here. Since the 6th century, the Slavs settled on the territory of modern Romania. After 300 years, part of the land fell under the rule of the Hungarians.
The emergence of the Romanian principalities dates back to the X-XII centuries. Wallachia and Moldova are part of the historical territory of the country, located in the south and east of Romania. This was the time of feudal rule: a prince was at the head of each principality, surrounded by nobles and courtiers who owned local lands. Serfdom was developed. For several centuries, the peoples of the country had to fight against the neighbors of Hungary and Poland and the Ottoman Empire, which in the 15th century captured the country and demanded regular payments of tribute. Until the 18th century, the country’s actual government was in the hands of local boyars, who wove cunning intrigues with the Turks. Periodically, the principalities of Wallachia and Moldova came out jointly against foreign interference. For example, this happened during the reign of Michael the Brave in Wallachia and Petr Rares in Moldova.
A new stage in the history of the state begins with the arrival of the 19th century when in 1821, their princes reigned on the Romanian thrones. Russia also showed interest in the Romanian principalities. Peter, I tried to establish the first friendly contacts. Catherine the Great was also interested in the Romanian principalities and tried to find a sphere of Russian influence in Romania. After the Russian-Turkish war, Russia formally began to rule the Romanian principalities. At this time, the founding of the prominent Romanian state takes place. Romania received the final liberation from the Ottoman yoke in the 70s when an alliance was concluded with Russia. Since 1871, the country has been called the Kingdom of Romania.
Some essential steps distinguish the next fifty years of the country’s development: significant industries are being created, railways are being built, the country’s first Constitution was adopted, and leading state institutions are developing. As a result of the conclusion of some agreements, Romania, at the beginning of the 20th century, receives Transylvania, Bukovina, and parts of Banat and Dobrudja.
As a result of mismanagement, the country was dragged into the Second World War on the side of Nazi Germany. In 1944, when the superiority of forces became clear, Romania joined the opposite side. After the victory of the Russian army, the development of Romania followed the socialist path. The king was forced to give up the throne. This is how the Romanian People’s Republic appeared. For the next two decades, the country developed under the leadership of the Communist Party of the USSR. Collectivization of all agriculture is carried out, and planning is introduced. In the 50s, Romania declares its right to the path to socialism and sovereignty from the Soviet Union.
In August 1965, when Nicolae Ceausescu took over the leadership of the Communist Party, the state officially became a socialist republic. Domestically, at this time, a policy of a hard line and relentless war with the opposition begins. High goals in industrialization have been set, which somewhat harmed the Romanian economy. The collapse of the economic sector led to a coup d’état in 1989. Ceausescu was removed from management and executed. In 1990, elections were held. As a result, a candidate from the National Salvation Front became the head of the country. Having failed to bring Romania out of the crisis, the party surrenders power to the Democratic Forces in new elections. And in 2000, representatives of the Social Democratic Party and nationalists took the helm of the country. Since 2004 Romania has joined NATO, and since 2007 it has been a member of the European Community.
Today Romania has become one of the most dynamically developing states of the European Union. Since joining the EU, the country has received more foreign investment and created tens of thousands of new jobs. At the beginning of 2017, the government raised the minimum wage to 320 euros. It is planned to reduce the tax on individuals from 2018. And if today it is 16% of income, then it is supposed to stop at 10%.
Today, Romania ranks eleventh among the countries of the European Union in terms of economic development. Perhaps this is not such an outstanding achievement. But if you remember to what poverty the country reached in the late eighties, then a financial breakthrough will become apparent. At the end of the 20th century, Romania lived in a tough economy. There was no electricity, ration cards were in circulation, and the outflow of the population began. The building of a new power does not always go smoothly, and to this day, part of the Romanian population is in distress. But the general standard of living of people is gradually changing.
The country’s industry is represented by oil and gas industries. In Romania, there are deposits of various natural resources. There is a precise balance between industry and agriculture, which helps to have inexpensive food and manufactured goods. Multiple types of passenger transport are also developed in Romania: land, air, and water. In recent years, tourist routes within the country have become increasingly popular. The whole world knows the ski resorts of the Carpathians and hotels on the Black Sea coast. The network of resorts on mud lakes, thermal waters, and mineral springs is also in demand.
Romania has its own Academy of Sciences, created back in 1879 and supported by a network of research institutes, scientific societies, and schools. Secondary education comprises three levels: preschool and two secondaries. After school, education can be continued in vocational training institutions, vocational schools, universities.
Climate and weather in Romania
In most of Romania, the continental type of climate prevails, usually formed under the influence of large volumes of land on the atmosphere. These places are characterized by hot summers, cold winters, a rapid change of spring and autumn. The temperate maritime climate influences the country located on the Black Sea coast due to the immediate availability of a large water area. Therefore, the winter in this region is milder than in the rest of the territory. A subalpine type of climate characterizes the mountainous regions of Romania.
Winters in Romania are often snowy and cold. There are snowfalls, often with winds. But on the Black Sea coast, winter weather is milder and wetter. Colds in March are not too different from those in February. Warming in the country begins in the first ten days of April. And although there are frosts at night, the thermometer is steadily creeping up. The natural spring in Romania lasts a little more than a month, and by the middle of May, the weather begins to be warm like summer. Summer is sunny and hot, and often there are showers with thunderstorms.
Autumn days are gloomy and rainy. Warm September weather in October changes sharply to windy and chilly. At the same time, at the end of the month, the first snowfalls and a permanent white cover are established in November almost throughout Romania, except the coastal coast in the southern part of the country. The temperature minimum was recorded here in 1942 and was -38 ° C, with a maximum of 44.5 ° C in the summer of 1951. The western and central parts of Romania receive the most precipitation in a year. In other regions, the weather is drier due to the Carpathian Mountains, which do not always allow winds from the Atlantic to penetrate these areas.
January temperatures in Bucharest are about 1 ° C during the day and -3 ° C at night. In ski resorts, it is colder, down to -5 ° C during the daytime, and up to -10 ° C in the dark. The weather on the slopes of the mountains is comfortable, there are few winds, so holidays in Romania in winter are becoming more and more popular and in demand. Although the January winds and humidity are not conducive to a comfortable stay on the seashore, many health resorts and sanatoriums in Romania are open all year round. The daytime temperature in these places is kept within 4 ° C, and the nighttime temperature stops at 0 ° C.
February is the most successful month for holidays in ski resorts with excellent slopes and hotels. During this period, the temperature in the mountainous part of the country fluctuates between -1 ° C during the day and -4 ° C at night. There is practically no windy weather, which makes your stay here pleasant and comfortable. Snow cover with a height of up to 50 cm lasts until March. Temperatures are 2-3 degrees higher for Bucharest, while in the coastal zone, thermometers are kept at around 4-5 ° C during the day, and at night they drop to 1 ° C.
March for Romania is a somewhat changeable season, and although the first signs of spring are already appearing, snow often falls. The weather in the ski resort is still conducive to relaxation. The daytime temperature is kept within 0 ° C, the nighttime temperature drops to -5 ° C. Snow cover lasts until mid-May. The capital is characterized by warming up to 11 ° C, coupled with nighttime cold snaps. The Black Sea coast is not very comfortable. It is pretty windy and humid here. The daytime temperature reaches 8 ° C, while the nighttime temperature drops to 2 ° C. The water near the coast begins to warm up to 13 ° C.
By the end of April, the thermometer can show up to 15 ° C. This period is characterized by warm days and cool nights. This is the weather in the capital. Therefore residents and guests of the city in the evening must take warm clothes with them. The season is ending in ski resorts, and the snow is melting more and more actively. The average daytime temperature here is 2 ° C, and the nighttime temperature is 2-3 degrees lower. In resorts, up to 7 ° C, the water has not yet warmed up and remains calm.
Already in May, warm summer weather comes to Romania. At the end of the month, thermometer readings stop at around 25 ° C. The weather in the capital during this period is slightly colder by 2-3 degrees. At night it can drop to 13 ° C. So far, only the most daring and seasoned open the swimming season, since the water temperature near the coast at the end of May is still 16-18 ° C. The heat also comes to ski resorts. Here in the afternoon, up to 16 ° C
May ends quickly, and summer comes to Romania. June in the country is characterized by comfortable weather. The maximum daytime temperature for Bucharest is around 27 ° C, while it drops to 17 ° C at night. The weather on the Black Sea coast is similar. The water warms up to 21 ° C, which makes it possible to open the beach season. Day and night temperatures in ski resorts are 19 ° C and 13 ° C, respectively. June is considered a comfortable month for swimming and excursions. The heat hasn’t come yet. You can opt for a beach holiday or treatment at a balneological resort.
July temperatures are already characterized by hot days when the temperature in the capital rises to an average of 29 ° C. The nights are warm with a temperature of 19 ° C. Although the weather on the Black Sea coast is similar to that of the country, the heat is better tolerated here. The water has already warmed up to 24 ° C. On the slopes of the mountains during this summer period, about 22 ° C during the day and 19 ° C at night.
The weather in August continues to be hot as in July. Daytime values in Bucharest stand at around 25-30 ° C, while at night, it can be more relaxed – up to 19 ° C. The Black Sea coast of Romania is pleased with hot days and a water temperature of about 25 ° C. During this period, the subalpine climate of the mountainous part of the country is also characterized by hot and humid weather. In addition to visiting the usual resorts, in August you can plan a vacation in the Romanian hospitals on the sea coast.
The velvet season on the Romanian Black Sea coast begins in September. This is the most suitable time for relaxation for those who do not like hot weather and a large influx of tourists. Daytime temperatures in seaside resorts average 24 ° C, while it drops to 17-18 ° C at night. The water near the coast remains warm enough for swimming – 22-23 ° C. The weather in Bucharest is practically the same, and it becomes fresher at night. There is little rain in September, so swimming is pleasant to combine with trips and excursions.
In October, a cold snap begins throughout the country. If the daytime temperature is kept within 17 ° C, the nighttime temperature drops to 11 ° C. The velvet season in towns on the Black Sea is over, the water warms up to only 17 ° C. There is not much rain in October, but at the end of the month, the temperature can drop sharply, and the first snowfalls occur.
Already in November, the approach of winter is felt in Romania. The average daytime temperature now does not rise more than 5 ° C in most areas. In the famous Black Sea resorts, the thermometer is still at around 11-12 ° C during the day and 8-9 ° C at night. But cold winds from the sea can darken any walk. Slightly warmer, 7–8 ° C, and in ski resorts, preparations are underway for the start of the season.
December in Romania is the beginning of the ski season. The snow cover is almost settled, daytime temperatures are around 0 ° C, and at night they drop to -2 ° C. If the influx of tourists now begins in the mountainous regions, then the seaside towns are empty, there are few visitors. During the day, the air here warms up to 7 ° C. At night it gets colder up to 3 ° C. The Romanian capital is now slightly warmer, averaging around 3 ° C during the day and 0 ° C at night.
Cities and regions
Administratively, according to the Constitution, Romania is divided into 41 counties. The so-called administrative-territorial units of the first level, which, in turn, consist of municipalities and communes. Municipalities are cities with more than 15 thousand people. A smaller settlement is usually called a commune, and it can consist of several villages. There is also a separate national municipality – the capital of Romania, Bucharest.
According to the regulations of the European Union, eight development regions are distinguished on the territory of Romania, which are only zones of statistical calculation.
Over the years, nine historical regions have stood out in Romania, each of which has its exciting history, culture, architectural monuments:
- Wallachia (Oltenia and Muntenia)
This region is located in the northwest of Romania. The most impressive structures in these places are ancient castles that resemble fairytale palaces. Moreover, in one of them lived the most famous vampire in the world – Count Dracula, Prince Vlad Tepes. People’s hero and terrible ruler – all in one bottle – has become a genuine tourist brand in Romania. Therefore, it is simply impossible to come to Transylvania and not visit Bran Castle. In this country region, you can see many other places: old cities with narrow cobbled streets, high Gothic cathedrals, ancient monasteries are good. Ski resorts are in demand from modern businesses. And also nature, wonderful Romanian nature: mountains, waterfalls, caves, forests, and rivers, because of which Transylvania is rightfully called Eastern European Switzerland.
In the ancient cities of Brasov and Sibiu, many Saxon settlements are located in Transylvania. In the east, there is the only lake in the European part of the continent, St. Anne’s lake, which appeared due to volcanic activity thousands of years ago. The southern part of the region is famous for the Deva Fortress, the Retezat National Park, and the castle in Hunedoara. In the northern part, you can see many picturesque villages where people from Hungary, Germany, and other countries live.
Wallachia is located between the foothills of the Carpathians and the Danube. Even in ancient times, it was divided into two regions, which today bear the names of Oltenia and Muntenia. The most important cities of Romania are located in Wallachia: Bucharest, Pitesti, Craiova, and others.
Bucharest is the center of Romania, the capital and the central city. More than 9% of the country’s population of more than 2 million people live here. Pitesti is famous for its flower festivals, musical fountains, and a large automobile enterprise. The city of Craiova is rich in historical monuments, and there are many ancient cathedrals, palaces, and squares.
Among other exciting places in Wallachia is Lake Vidraru, which appeared during a hydroelectric power station on the Arges River. The most dangerous road in the world is the Transfagaras Pass, located between Wallachia and Transylvania. This historical region is home to famous ski resorts such as Poiana Brasov, Predeal, and others. Wallachia is known as the land of Gypsy culture, the largest in this region and the world.
This ancient province is located in the southeast of the country between the Black Sea and the Danube. The territory of Dobrudja is 25 square kilometers and is home to 1 million people. This Black Sea coast of Romania is famous for many seaside towns, resort towns, sanatoriums, and hospitals. Among the most attractive places in the region are the cities of Constanta, the largest seaport in Romania, and Tulcea, an ancient city on seven hills. Dobrudja has many museums of Greco-Roman antiquity.
Tourists are also interested in the caves located on the territory of Dobrudja with unique fauna and flora. Near Constanta, there are many vineyards where the ingredients for the delicious local wine are grown on the coast. Nearby is the “Temple of Dionysus” – a large tourist center, where excursions are combined with the tasting of spirits. And, of course, there are many cozy cafes and restaurants in Dobrudja, where various fish dishes are prepared.
Banat is located in the west of Romania. There are many beautiful natural landscapes and spectacular views. The largest city in the region is Timisoara, the main attraction of which is the Metropolitan Cathedral. The temple rises to 96 meters and has 11 towers. There are many other ancient buildings and museums in the city. Banat is home to the Caras Gorge National Park. The region is also famous for its local wineries that produce exquisite wines. On the territory of Banat, there are beautiful pristine lakes, mountain gorges, and caves, waterfalls.
This ancient region of Romania is located in the northern part of the country. Most of the territory here is covered with lush forests, mountain ranges with rivers. The central city of the region is Suceava, where part of the ancient fortress has been preserved. Medieval buildings and museums attract many tourists. The famous Bukovina monasteries, which stand out for their non-standard design, are also must-see. According to local traditions, the cloisters of Voronets, Sucevina, Moldova, Arbor are painted with frescoes and outside, which gives them a unique look and attracts many tourists. It will also be interesting that each monastery has its predominant color. For example, for Moldova, it is a yellow shade. For Voronets, it is blue, and Arbor is painted with rainbow colors. The Ceahlau National Park is also located in Bukovina.
In the north of Romania is the ancient region of Maramures, located in the center between the hills and mountains. On the territory of the area, there are many villages with ancient traditions and crafts. These lands are famous for their potters and carpenters, and it is not without reason that there is a second name for the region – “the country of the tree.” On the territory of Maramures, magnificent wooden churches with tall, sharp Spiers, which pierce the sky like spokes, have been built. These objects are included in the UNESCO heritage. The wooden decorations of houses and gates with traditional Romanian patterns will also cause surprise. The cities of Maramures will be just as admirable. The largest of them, Sighet and Baia Mare have many interesting sights.
Moldova’s ancient region stands out for its natural beauty, unique history, and folklore in the eastern part of Romania. The cultural capital of this region is the city of Iasi, where there are many Orthodox churches. The most famous monument in Iasi is the Church of the Three Saints, about 400 years old. In April, Moldova hosts the festival of folk music and dance in Radauce. August is famous for its folk music festivals in Dureu, and in Iasi, there is a harvest festival in September.
Where to go in Romania
The Romanian Bran Castle of the end of the 14th century, fanned by legends, is known to tourists as “Dracula’s Castle”. It is located about 28-30 km by road from the city of Brasov, on the border of the historical regions – Transylvania and Muntenia.
In the center, on one of the surrounding low mountains, there is the Rasnov fortress, from which the city itself began. Historians suggest that earlier, this place was a military settlement of German knights. But having come into conflict with the king of Hungary, representatives of the Teutonic order were forced to leave their camp and move to Prussia.
The first mentions of the fortress in the annals dating back to 1331, although it was built in the 20s of the 13th century. The fort was built on the top of a hill 200 meters high and had impregnable walls on three sides. You could get inside along the road from the south side. But here, there were several defensive structures, and a deep ditch was dug. At the bottom, there were sharp stakes. The road passed over a drawbridge. The fortress had a total area of 3.5 thousand square meters, two bastions, and nine watchtowers. A courtyard was also envisaged, where cattle were kept and stored weapons, food, and water. Over time, the settlement at the foot of the fortress grew. But in an attack or siege, the locals climbed into the fort and could sit there for a long time, holding the defense. A church, a school, was built on the territory of the fortress, and there were also about 30 houses. The defensive structure itself resembled a polygon with walls 5 meters high.
For many years the fortress was abandoned. Today it has been restored, renovated, and open to tourists. This was done by a resident of Italy, who leased the territory of the fortress in the local municipality for 49 years. The entire area of the fort today is one large open-air museum, where there are ancient weapons, coins, household items.
Inside the fortress walls, there is a well almost 150 meters deep. Local legend claims that the well was dug by captured Turks, who were promised release after the end of the work. But after many years of hard labor, the captives were killed. The well supplied the residents with water until the middle of the 19th century, and then the lifting wheel broke. For many years it stood abandoned, and only in our time it was repaired and cleaned, while the bones of two people were found at the bottom.
Vacations Forever: 5 Best Resort Towns You Should Move to ASAP
Do you want to be on vacation all year long? Fewer people are using their part-time vacation homes as primary residences nowadays, but that doesn’t mean it couldn’t be a great choice for you.
Let’s go through the top resort towns you should move to if you want to be permanently on vacation.
1. Jackson Hole, United States
If you’re a big fan of skiing, you’re sure to enjoy Jackson Hole, Wyoming. Jackson Hole has very low crime rates, so it’s a safe place to live if you have a family.
It’s also home to some excellent schools, so you don’t need to be worried about your children’s education. However, Jackson Hole does have high costs of living, particularly for a city in a less populated state.
2. Estepona, Spain
Do you enjoy the south of Spain? Consider moving to Estepona. This city, which is located on the Costa del Sol, is populated along the coast. There are tons of amazing water sports you can try out when you visit Estepona.
Plus, you can check out interesting museums when you live in Estepona, like the Antonio Ordóñez Museum of Bullfighting, the Ethnographic Museum, and the Paleontology Museum. And, Estepona is home to delicious restaurants, so you’ll never get tired of eating the local cuisine. Those who are looking for a place to live in Estepona should check out choosemarbella.com.
3. Cartagena, Colombia
If you’re looking for a great beach city, you’ll certainly want to consider Cartagena. There are plenty of resorts you can check out, or you can hit the beaches yourself.
Cartagena is also one of the cheaper cost of living options when it comes to beach cities. However, if you’re a vegetarian or have dietary restrictions, Colombia can be a difficult country to navigate.
4. Palm Springs, United States
Palm Springs is an interesting resort city. It’s extremely popular with seniors and members of the LGBTQ community (along with, of course, people who fall under both categories).
Palm Springs is the perfect place to live for people who love golfing or playing tennis. But be forewarned, you’ll need a car to get around Palm Springs since things are spread out and public transportation can be limited.
5. Todos Santos, Mexico
While Cabo San Lucas is one of the most popular resort city choices out there, it’s probably not a place you want to live long term. So, why not try out one of the neighboring towns? Todos Santos is one great option.
Todos Santos is home to a great community of artists, so people who love creativity won’t want to miss out. Plus, Todos Santos is one of the safest resort towns out there. And, the city is becoming more and more popular, so you’ll be trendy by moving to Todos Santos.
Move to These Resort Towns Today
What are you waiting for? Any of these resort towns are a great option for your next stage in life.
Are you looking for more lifestyle advice? Make su
Estonia Travel Guide: Best Places to Visit And Things To Do
Estonia is one of the brightest, most versatile, and diverse countries in northern Europe. Situated on the eastern coast of the Baltic Sea and washed by the waters of the Gulfs of Riga and Finland, Estonia offers tourists an incredible selection of natural landscapes, ancient monuments, and architectural wonders. Millennia of history, cultural traditions, lively and fascinating, historic cities, castles, and fortresses of the Crusader era, museums, and elegant museums from the time of the Empire. Two thousand five hundred islands, virgin forests and National parks, lakes, swamps, meteorite craters, and hundreds of kilometers of beaches – this is all Estonia!
With the latest technological advances, Estonia offers a unique cocktail of experiences where all the ingredients are perfectly matched. Excursions, entertainment, historical routes, shopping, gastronomic wonders, spa hotels, and the best beaches of the Baltic Sea – whatever plan you go on vacation, Estonia will undoubtedly bring them to life.
Despite its modest size, Estonia can surprise even the experienced traveler. It is easily accessible from any corner of Europe – by air, land, and water. Tallinn, the delightful and ancient capital of Estonia, and the main cities of Sweden and Finland are only hours apart. Guests from Warsaw will be delivered by a comfortable bus, and residents of St. Petersburg should not be late for the evening train. Breakfast can be ordered in the heart of Tallinn.
Magical Tallinn, an actual teleport city, a time machine in action.
The entire old town is included in the UNESCO World Heritage List as an example of conservation in northern Europe.
From a bird’s eye view, its shape repeats the heart – this is probably why it regularly steals hearts from impressionable tourists!
It is enough to climb one of the observation platforms to leave your own there, and there are many of them in the city.
And then walk the whimsically twisted streets, admiring the ancient fortress walls, towers, and underground passages – the Tallinn fortress is more than 700 years old, and it is also considered the standard of medieval architecture.
In addition to the fortress, the historic part of Tallinn will offer ancient temples, medieval mansions, museums, and, of course, restaurants – to celebrate your acquaintance with the city tastefully, and you have a choice of 1001 restaurants. Many of them have earned the laurels of the best in northern Europe.
The second most important city in the country is Tartu. It is considered the intellectual capital of Estonia, and it is not for nothing that its foundation is attributed to Prince Yaroslav the Wise. The oldest university, the most picturesque ruins of the cathedral, the most beautiful Botanical Garden, and the most “advanced” museums are located here. Another reason to visit Tartu is fairs, festivals, and other entertainment events. Thanks to the university and the student body, it is also the funniest city in Estonia.
In Narva, Rakvere, and Põltsamaa, ancient fortresses and majestic castles fans should take a ride.
Life here is quiet and unhurried, and only occasionally, the city’s peace is disturbed by music festivals and historical reconstructions.
The “summer” capital of Estonia, stylish and bright, will offer its guests spa hotels, health resorts on the shores of the Gulf of Finland, a pretty port with yachts, and the Old Town of the Hanseatic League.
But the main thing for tourists who come here is eight kilometers of sandy beach, the best in the country.
Those who love everything at once should go to Haapsalu. One of the most famous spa resorts, renowned for its traditions and admirers, Haapsalu also has a worthy historical dimension.
A medieval castle and an old cathedral, a vibrant Old Town, the Seaside Promenade – culture is perfectly combined with vacation motives.
And, of course, you cannot leave Estonia without seeing its islands. Choose the largest and most beautiful island of Saaremaa and its capital, old Kuressaare. The local Bishop’s Castle is considered the most harmonious in the country, and the climate is one of the best on the coast.
In short, why would you not come to Estonia – to have fun, improve your health, or intellectually enrich yourself, you will have a great vacation. Estonia will take care of this!
Estonian history is a journey of thousands of years. This northern country has managed to preserve the traditions and customs of its ancestors, Viking sagas, and tales of overseas kings while remaining a modern European state.
Estonia: the beginning of the beginnings
Historical evidence of life on these lands can be found already in the 9th millennium BC. The appearance of the first people on the territory of modern Estonia is associated with the end of the last known ice age. According to archaeologists, the oldest site of primitive people appeared on the banks of the Pärnu River, not far from Sindi, approximately in 9500 BC. There are several such settlements. They all belong to the Kund culture.
This ancient cultural stratum existed until the 5th millennium BC and is named after the Estonian city of Kunda. Its influence spread to the eastern Baltic states, Poland, and southern Finland. The settlements of hunters and anglers used stone tools of labor and defense, which are found in many archaeologists, right up to the Mesolithic period.
Over the millennia, cultural layers have changed, and along with them – the traditions of the peoples inhabiting these lands. Already in the third millennium BC, the inhabitants of the settlements began to raise livestock, and by the first millennium, this trade became the main activity of the settlers.
The path to the emergence of statehood
Three thousand years ago, the inhabitants of the territories that make up modern Estonia chose a sedentary lifestyle. As a rule, the new settlers preferred the coastal regions, and here the first settlements were built, fortified, and defended. Their traces can be found to this day on the island of Saaremaa, and these are Ridala and Asva, as well as the settlement of Iru near Tallinn.
At the same time, sea and land contacts with neighbors begin to develop. Archaeologists designate this period as the culture of stone burials. It is associated with the resettlement of the ancestors of the Germans from Scandinavia.
Estonia, at the beginning of our era, is the land of agriculture and cattle breeding. Already in the early Middle Ages, customs and traditional ways of rural life appeared, which Estonians managed to preserve to this day. Many historic villages still exist today.
The early Middle Ages are a crucial period in the formation of Estonia. New, fortified settlements are being built, a system of administrative registration of territories has been formed, and a small farm is taken as a unit of measurement – a typical family farm. There are still many of them in Estonia. The entire territory of the state is divided into 8 regions and counties, these are Virumaa, Läanemaa, Rävala, Saaremaa, Sakala, Ugandi, Harju County, Järvamaa.
By this period, an early feudal model of society was formed, where elders ruled the lands. The major Estonian epic, which tells the story of the medieval giant Kalevipoeg, was written just in the spirit of that time.
In the same historical period, around 1030, the campaign of Prince Yaroslav the Wise began in the northern lands. He founded the city of Yuryev, present-day Tartu.
A little later, local tribes recaptured Tartu. In the following centuries, the ancient Estonians, on the one hand, and the inhabitants of Pskov with Novgorod, on the other, regularly “exchanged pleasantries.”
Such raids on neighbors were considered in the Order of things. One of them even went down in history. It is known that the Estonians conflicted with the Scandinavian Vikings. The inhabitants of the largest Estonian island – Saaremaa, mainly distinguished themselves in this confrontation.
Possessing a solid fleet at that time, the Oeselians, that is, the islanders kidnapped the Norwegian Queen Astrid and her son, Prince Olaf.
Subsequently, it was canonized, and one of the most outstanding examples of medieval architecture in Estonia, St. Olaf’s Church, was named in its part.
The Estonian Vikings are also credited with the destruction of the Swedish capital of Sigtuna at the beginning of the 12th century. Visiting the island of Saaremaa, you can see with your own eyes the treasures of the Vikings, which were found here in many.
The Early Middle Ages: From the Crusaders to the Reformation
The beginning of the Middle Ages in Estonia is associated with the spread of Christianity. The faith of Christ came to these lands later than to central Europe, and if at the beginning these were missionary movements, then the planting of a new religion took place with fire and sword. Various organizations – the Teutonic Order, the Pope, German archbishops, Denmark, and the Kingdom of Sweden – advocated for Estonia’s conversion to Catholicism. Pagan ancestor cults have always been extreme in these parts, so the Northern Crusade decided to take drastic measures. In history, he remained under the name of Livonian.
The crusaders reached the Estonian lands by 1208. And in 1217, the battle of Viljandi took place, where the Estonians were defeated. Two years later, the territories of northern Estonia were conquered by the Danes, the south of the state began to belong to the German Order of the Swordsmen.
As a result of the conquests, these lands fell under the control of the powerful Livonian Order, which had occupied a substantial part of the modern Baltic.
At the same time, the Danish king granted Tallinn, which was considered a pearl among cities, the privileges of the Lübeck city law.
According to these laws, the capital of Estonia, like other cities of the Hanseatic League, was governed until the beginning of the twentieth century.
The conquered lands were transformed into bishoprics. Some of them were subordinate to the supreme authority in Riga. Denmark ruled others.
Of course, this did not consider the interests of the local population, and conflicts were inevitable.
The most famous uprising was St. George’s Night, which marked the Peasant War of Liberation beginning.
The riots, which the Danish authorities could not cope with, forced them to sell the land to the Teutonic Order. The era of German rule in Estonia began.
German landlords wielded tremendous power here for the next 700 years. The territories of modern Estonia and Latvia are called Livonia – a medieval community of interconnected small principalities that were part of the German church territories of the Holy Roman Empire. The feudal system formed in medieval Estonia put German knights and Catholic bishops at the pinnacle of power.
The rights and freedoms of residents were constantly infringed upon, right up to the introduction of serfdom. Taxes and taxes reached unprecedented levels, and all administrative and judicial power belonged to the German magistrates. At the same time, the Estonians themselves, who constituted the majority of the population, remained predominantly peasants and did not have personal freedom.
In large cities, merchant guilds and artisan communities were formed, and Rewal – modern Tallinn, Dorpat, now the city of Tartu, Pernau, familiar to us as Pärnu, and Viljandi were part of the powerful Hanseatic League. This commercial and defensive amalgamation of merchant guilds and merchant cities quickly became a monopoly in northern Europe.
Traces of those times are still easy to find on the streets of Tallinn.
Walking through the Old Town, pay attention to the medieval warehouses, equipped with hooks sticking out above the attic for lifting loads.
Perhaps due to the eternal conflict of interests of the trading cities with their merchants and the Catholic clergy represented by the German bishops, the Reformation movement in Estonia received support.
The middle of the 16th century was accompanied by riots, where ordinary people revolted against the Catholic clergy.
One of the manifestos of the Reformation, which the locals supported, was the holding of divine services and the publication of books in Estonian.
Middle-Ages: from the Livonian War to the Russian Empire
The sixteenth-century turned out to be a turning point – the Livonian Order, the Grand Duchy of Lithuania, the Russian tsar, Sweden, and the Danish kingdom started a major conflict over the division of territories. It remains in history as the Livonian War. Estonia became one of those lands for which they fought. Both the population and the economic component of the cities suffered greatly during the hostilities. As a result, the state was divided between Sweden, the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth, and Denmark.
Later, by the middle of the 17th century, all the territories of modern Estonia were ceded to the Kingdom of Sweden. The foundation of the University of Tartu, one of the oldest in Europe, dates back to this time. A significant event took place in 1632, at the direction of the Swedish king Gustav II Adolf.
Until the end of the 17th century, the economic stability of Estonia was ensured by trade. Large cities – Narva, Tallinn, Tartu, stood at the crossroads of trade routes, through which goods went to Europe or Russia and back. The agricultural sector also functioned well, and crafts were developing.
The Great Northern War changed the balance of power in the region. It ended in 1721 with the surrender of Sweden, and the Estonian lands came under the control of the Russian Empire.
Estonia as part of Russia
Most of the Baltic territories in the middle of the 18th century were ceded to Russia. Northern Estonia turned into Revel province, and southern lands, together with Latvia, formed Livonia. Emperor Peter the Great restored the rights of the German nobility, and they constituted a solid layer in the highest authorities. In religion, complete freedom was also allowed for both the Lutheran faith and the Russian Orthodox Church.
In the spheres of culture and education, progress was observed, books, newspapers, and magazines were published in Estonian, educational societies were actively working, defending the rights of the people, and literacy of the population was almost universal.
The population also recovered, undermined by wars and epidemics.
An important historical milestone was the abolition of serfdom by Tsar Alexander the First. It happened in 1816.
In the middle of the 19th century, Estonia and the rest of the empire entered the era of capitalism.
The industry developed by leaps and bounds, mechanical engineering, textile, and agricultural industries formed the basis of the economy.
Success in the economic field and the development of educational programs contributed to the birth of the Estonian national movement.
Towards a free Estonia
Activists of the national movement, formed at the end of the 19th century, demanded equal rights for Germans and indigenous people, Estonians, whose interests were infringed upon. These societies united writers, educators, journalists, representatives of the intellectual elite. They fought not only for legal rights but also for restoring traditions such as the Song Festival, ethnographic festivals, the first Estonian theater. However, despite these bold attempts, the Russians and Germans remained society’s economic and political elite.
In the wake of patriotic movements and extreme provocations, strikes and unrest broke out throughout Estonia. The tsarist government responded with harsh repression, but the uprisings continued in 1916, leading to the 1917 revolution. The interim government was entrusted with managing the former Estland province.
Riots continued this time between Estonian nationalists and Bolsheviks. However, now the First World War intervened in the plans of the future Soviet government. Estonia remained neutral in this conflict, demanding independence.
The wish came true on February 24, 1918 – finally, Estonia became a free state.
The first Estonian republic existed until 1940. The Second World War, its sad consequences, and the subsequent incorporation into the USSR lasted almost fifty years.
Estonia regained independence in 1991 with a rally known as the Singing Revolution.
Over the past thirty years, the state has been actively developing.
Tallinn’s old town was renovated for the 100th anniversary of independence.
Estonia is a member of the UN, the European Union, and NATO, a technically advanced and progressive country.
The system of electronic elections exists and is actively used here, and Skype was invented.
In 2002, Tallinn hosted the Eurovision Song Contest, and in 2018, the anniversary year for Estonian independence, many museums, palaces, and cultural sites were renovated.
The Tallinn Christmas market was recognized as the most beautiful in Europe by the European Best Destinations Association in the same year.
And regardless of political trends, time of year, and the weather outside the window, this beautiful, diverse, and close country is always waiting for you to visit!
Climate and weather in Estonia
Weather in cities
Several factors influence the Estonian climate. The proximity of the Baltic Sea, the Gulf Stream, Atlantic cyclones, temperate continental regions, fifteen hundred islands – this combination can be safely called unique.
The warmest month of the year is July, and the coldest is February.
However, the transitions between seasons are smooth and comfortable, and the country’s inhabitants are unfamiliar with both severe touches of frost and sweltering heat.
Estonia, located both on the mainland and on the islands, is surrounded by water on three sides. A large part of it is swamped, and the sea and the unusual natural relief create their microclimate. The weather in Estonia is most often described as humid and calm, relatively mild.
Winter in Estonia starts as expected – in December. As a rule, snowfalls at this time, which greatly adorn the landscapes, and there is a light frost conducive to walking.
It is one of the most popular tourist seasons of the year and is the time to celebrate Christmas and New Year.
January and February are colder and frosty, and there is a lot of snow. However, the air temperature rarely drops below – 6 … 8 ° C.
The weather is conducive to winter fun – ski runs, skating rinks in parks, sledding, fishing are open.
Estonians are a very athletic nation, and most of the time, joining their winter walks is entirely free.
Spring comes to Estonia not earlier than the second half of March. At this time of the year, frosts are still possible, mainly at night, but the sun is peeping more often.
April is also a fantastic month; May is considered more successful for a visit to the country. Spring can be seen in all its glory – in blooming parks, meadows outside the city, and bright city flower beds. Walking around Old Tallinn, do not deny yourself the pleasure of sitting at a table in an outdoor cafe – in May, such gatherings in the air are already quite comfortable.
If the purpose of your visit is to see summer Estonia, plan your trip in July. June is more like a warm spring than our usual summer. However, the month is exceptionally sunny and not too grainy.
The best time to visit Estonia is in June and July.
July is considered the warmest, sunniest, and driest month of the year. The air temperature warms up to + 22 … 24 ° C. + 30 ° C in Estonia is an abnormal heat. Such temperature cataclysms do not happen often.
Despite quite hot daily temperatures for Estonia, summer nights remain cool.
This feature of the local climate dictates to tourists their own rules for collecting luggage – a light jacket or sweater is required even in the middle of summer.
July and August are perfect for exploring Estonian cities and relaxing on their beaches.
The water temperature off the coast of Tallinn is usually around + 20 ° C, in rare cases warming up a few degrees higher.
Another good season to visit Estonia is autumn.
September usually welcomes guests of the country with dry, warm, and sunny weather.
This is an excellent time for both city walks and outdoor recreation. The first frosts and rains come with the onset of October, and although the average temperature is around + 10 ° C during the day, the mood is spoiled by prolonged precipitation.
It is freezing and wet in November. This is the time of real northern autumn, with fogs and falling snow. A warm hat and mittens are a must, or you can keep warm at the numerous spas, as well as at Christmas markets, which also start in November.
Estonian cities and regions
The territory of Estonia, divided in the 13th century by the knights of the Livonian Order into eight historical regions – Maakondas in Estonian, today, with the recognition of independence, has been divided into 15 counties. Almost all of them, to a greater or lesser extent, are of some interest to travelers.
The country’s history in stone can be studied in the regions of Harju, Lääne-Viru County, Ida-Virumaa. Here you will find the ruins of ancient castles, noble estates from the times of the empire, palaces, and all this against the backdrop of dunes and seemingly pristine coniferous forests. The main cities of the north of the country are the capital Tallinn, the seaside Paldiski, Maardu with its lake.
In addition to the beauties of ancient Tallinn, with its great fortress and streets of the Old Town, Harju County attracts with its excellent preservation of medieval buildings.
Temples and fortresses, historical landowners’ estates – manors, the Vasalemma palace, and park complex.
The views are also in order here – 17 landscape zones protecting unique natural monuments, including karst fields, heaths, springs, swamps, picturesque coastal cliffs.
County Ida-Viru County is famous for its ancient megaliths in Lahemaa National Park, on the coast of the Gulf of Finland.
Noble estates, the “village of captains” Käsmu, where the first ship of Estonian production was launched, the family estate of Admiral von Krusenstern, as well as a tour of the Neeruti National Park – you will not have time to get bored. Don’t miss Rakvere Castle – built-in 1226 by the Danes, it is perfectly preserved for its advanced age.
Ida-Viru County will appeal to nature explorers. Sea ledges – Klint, the highest waterfall in the country, the Oru landscape reserve, the most interesting in Estonia, the Alutaguse adventure park, the beaches of Lake Peipsi, and the opportunity to kayak on the Kurtna lakes.
The western regions of Estonia – Saaremaa, Hiiumaa, Pärnumaa, and Läänemaa, are an opportunity to have a fantastic seaside holiday, combining vacation with viewing architectural masterpieces. In this region, sea resorts, spa centers, mud baths, and sanatoriums are concentrated.
Saaremaa county is located on the largest island in Estonia and encompasses the islets nearby. They are loved by fans of sea sports – surfing and kiting, thanks to their windy weather. And in the holiday season, you can go swimming with seals, organized by the employees of Vilsandi National Park. Do not miss the Kaali meteorite crater, which is filled with water of an unusual jade hue. The lake is round in shape, 100 meters in diameter, and you can swim in it in summer.
The capital of the county is Kuressaare. There is a sea harbor, an airport, and the Episcopal Castle, one of the most beautiful in Eastern Europe.
The Old Town has also survived in Kuressaare, with colorful historical buildings.
Surfers and beachgoers also love hiiumaa.
The second-largest island in Estonia offers tourists a picturesque coastline with a total length of 310 km, wind, and waves for fans of sea activities, as well as hiking trails.
You can walk, for example, to the Kõpu lighthouse – the most ancient navigational landmark in the Baltics.
The largest county in Estonia is Pärnumaa. Its capital, the seaside port city of Pärnu, is considered the main Baltic resort in Estonia. Perfect sandy beaches with white dunes surrounded by pine forests are found here.
Neighboring Läänemaa attracts visitors thanks to the county capital, the old town of Haapsalu. Famous for the traditions of mud therapy – the first clinic in the country was opened here, he has not lost his “qualifications” even now. Do not miss the old Kurhaus on the seaside promenade – a beautiful wooden building from the 19th century with a concert hall. And in the center of the city, you will find a 13th-century bishop’s castle, whose ruins are majestic.
The center of the country is beautiful during the warm season. Gardens are blooming, historic estates are opening their doors, and landscaped parks are inviting guests. Raplamaa, Viljandi County, and Järvamaa counties offer many exciting walks.
For example, in Raplamaa, it is suggested to visit the “Golden Ring of Raplamaa Manors.” The program includes noble estates, old churches, historical manors, which are now open as crafts centers. Hikers should pay attention to the limestone plateau in Maryamaa parish.
Viljandi County is visited for the sake of the central city – Viljandi, with a very ancient and venerable history. The first settlements here date back to the 5th century BC, the Viking Age. Written references to the city date back to 1154, and in the 12th century, the first permanent settlement appeared on the site of Viljandi. At the beginning of the XIII century, these lands were conquered by order of the Swordsmen, and already in 1224, a stone fortress was erected here, which was considered the largest in the Baltic. The defense and the city were called Fellin. Under this name, they were part of the Hanseatic League.
In Järva will appeal to fans of nature and lovers of history. Here you can visit the historic Albu estate and then walk in the Kõrvemaa landscape reserve. Bird watchers will especially appreciate this park; you can watch rare black storks and golden eagles here.
The legendary shores of Lake Peipsi are the birthplace of the Tartumaa and Jõgevamaa regions. The historical battles of the Russian-Swedish and the Livonian War did not pass unnoticed; numerous castles and fortresses in the east of the country have survived to this day in the form of picturesque ruins.
County Tartu County – the citadel of knowledge and scientific progress. Tartu, the region’s central city and the second most populous in the country, boasts a rich history. One of the oldest in Eastern Europe, Tartu was founded by Yaroslav the Wise in 1030 as the city of Yuryev. In addition to the university, one of the oldest in Europe, Tartu is famous for theaters, museums, architectural monuments, pretty streets of the Old Town.
The vicinity of Lake Peipsi, located nearby, will be an excellent competitor to seascapes.
You can come here for a whole vacation and not have time to see all the exciting places in the area – ancient manors, the famous “Onion Route” – a historical route through museums and castles, the beautiful Alatskivi Palace.
The amazing glacial landscapes of Jõgevamaa county take us back to the time of the epic about the exploits of Kalevipoeg, the giant warrior.
Mysterious protected forests, lakes, giant boulders, as if forgotten here by a strong man – everything breathes with legends.
One of the most exciting places in the county is the town of Põltsamaa. Once there was the capital of the Livonian Kingdom, with its castle, which welcomes guests in the city center today. By the way, Põltsamaa is also considered the wine capital of Estonia – fruit and berry and fruit wines are produced here, arranging colorful festivals and fairs in summer.
In winter, the southern regions of Valga County, Võrumaa, and Põlvamaa are especially popular with Estonian residents and visitors. The best ski resorts are located here, and the hilly terrain is favorable for snowmobiling and sledding. Valga County is also popular with professionals – it hosts the qualifying rounds of the European Championships and the World Cup in cross-country skiing. In summer, the freestyle jumps are used as an observation deck.
Põlvamaa will appeal to fans of ethno-tourism. Here are the settlements and villages that have preserved the traditional way of life, all against the backdrop of marvelous nature. National parks offer hiking trails of any degree of difficulty, and you can walk along swamps, cliffs, and canyons.
An additional highlight is meteorite craters, and there are four of them in the area. Moreover, the diameter of the deepest is about 80 meters.
Võrumaa county will appeal to wildlife researchers. The main pride of the region is the Hinni Canyon, a mysterious valley that gives rise to the Rõuge Trail. Having passed it to the end, you will see the pasture of the indigenous abodes of these places – the reindeer.
The largest lake in Estonia and the country’s highest point, Suur Munamägi Hill, 318 meters high, is also waiting for you on the route.
Where to go in Estonia
The Tallinn Zoo was founded in 1939.
Today the collection numbers over 350 animal species living on 89 hectares. The zoo’s expositions include Alpine, Central Asian, South American, Arctic, and many other zones.
The zoo is proud of the collection “Tropical House,” rare for northern latitudes: the inhabitants of the tropical jungle were settled here.
Town Hall Square
Each ancient European city has its central square with a town hall founded in medieval times. Such areas were usually used as a gathering place during some important events and as a trading platform. Tallinn is also no exception and has its center – Town Hall Square.
Monument to the battleship “Rusalka.”
A bronze angel on the seashore holds a cross in his hand held high above his head. He points to the place of death of the battleship “Rusalka.” The statue, created by the sculptor A. Adamson, was installed in Kadriorg Park in 1902 on the 7th anniversary of the shipwreck.
Fat Margarita Tower
A medieval maritime city is, first of all, towers and fortress walls, in a word, structures intended to defend the city from invading invaders. Today the Great Sea Gate and the Fat Margarita have turned into monuments reminding native Tallinn residents and guests of the town about the terrible times. Fat Margarita was “born” in the 16th century: a giant armory tower (155 loopholes) with a diameter of 25 meters and a height of 20 meters was erected next to the Sea Gate.
Kadriorg Palace and Park
Kadriorg is considered a prestigious area of Tallinn. The tranquil area is famous for its rich history and the main attractions – the Kadriorg Palace and park. Now on its territory is the residence of the Estonian president and several embassies of other states. The preserved wooden houses are also of interest; Estonia’s prominent figures of literature and art lived in them in the 1920s – 1930s.
Aquapark in Tallinn
Aquapark in Tallinn is a water spa at the Kalev Spa hotel located in the center of the “old town” next to Kanuti Park. Town Hall Square is just a 7-minute walk from the water park. In addition, within walking distance of many attractions is the center of Tallinn – Dominican Monastery, Alexander Nevsky Cathedral, Dome Cathedral, St. Peter and Paul Church, St. Nicholas Church, Church of the Holy Spirit, Church of St. Nicholas the Wonderworker, Toompea Castle, Kiek-de- Kyok and other objects.
Czech Travel Guide: Best Places to Visit And Things To Do
The Czech Republic, or the Czech Republic, is a central European state bordering Poland in the north, Germany in the west, Austria in the south, and Slovakia in the east. The capital of the Czech Republic is the city of Prague, which is one big attraction in the open air. The country covers an area of 78 866 km², has 10 610 947 people (2016). The largest cities are Prague, Brno, Pilsen, Ostrava.
According to legend, the ancestors of today’s Czechs, led by their leader Czech, settled on the territory of the modern Czech Republic, which has been inhabited since the Stone Age. The first chronicle mentions settlements on the Czech land date back to the end of the 9th century when princes from the Přemyslid clan united these lands. In the Middle Ages, the Czech kingdom had significant influence. Still, the religious conflicts that arose (the Hussite wars in the 15th century and the Thirty Years’ War in the 17th century) significantly weakened it. Soon the kingdom fell under the rule of the Habsburgs and became part of Austria-Hungary.
After the end of the First World War and the fall of Austria-Hungary in 1918, the Czech Republic, Slovakia, and Subcarpathian Rus united into the independent republic of Czechoslovakia. Germany occupied the country in 1939. At the end of World War II, the Czech Republic found itself in the Soviet camp, which predetermined its history until 1989. On January 1, 1993, Slovakia separated from the Czech Republic, and both countries gained independence. Today’s Czech Republic has been a NATO member since 1999, and it has been a member of the European Union since 2004.
The Czech Republic is one of the most popular tourist destinations in Europe. Regardless of the season, the country annually is visited by about 50 million people—the choice of tourist routes in the Czech. Republic is so extensive that it is worthwhile to decide in advance which direction of tourism interests you at the moment and which should be left for subsequent visits. The most attractive are historical routes since the country has many objects that will be of interest to fans of antiquity: castles, fortresses, castles. Some cities in the Czech Republic are included in the UNESCO World Cultural Heritage List.
Climate and weather in the Czech Republic
The climate of the Czech Republic is moderate continental with features of the sea. Summer in the region is warm, with daytime temperatures of + 23 … + 25 ° С, with a lot of precipitation. Winter is cloudy, cool, in the day around 0 … + 3 ° С, and at night -5. -2 ° С, snow often falls. In winter, ski resorts start operating in the mountains.
The minimum precipitation occurs in spring and autumn, and this time is considered the most comfortable for excursions and travel around the country.
The weather in the Czech Republic rarely surprises: in summer, as a rule, it is not hot, and in winter, it is moderately calm, so tourists visit the country all year round.
- Pilsen Region – This region attracts tourists with its old Baroque buildings, nature reserves, folklore, and delicious food. Local beer is considered one of the most delicious varieties in the whole Czech Republic and beyond.
- The South Bohemian Region is the greenest and most picturesque region of the Czech Republic, with a rich history and unique architectural sights. A third of its area is covered with forests and seven thousand pounds.
- Stí nad Labem – this area is also called the “Gateway to the Czech Republic,” as it is surrounded by hills – former volcanoes, from the tops of which an impressive view of the whole Czech Republic opens. The region will be attractive for those who like to explore ancient cities and their architecture. And for those who prefer rest among the picturesque nature – there are many reserves here. Thanks to volcanic soils, the region grows the highest quality hops in the world.
- Liberec Region – the region is famous for its magnificent nature and ski resorts. It is also considered the birthplace of a precious stone – Czech garnet.
- Hradec Králové Region – the region is home to the highest mountains of the Czech Republic – the Krkonoše with numerous ski resorts, a large number of castles and fortresses, and the most significant Czech zoo – an authentic African safari.
- Pardubice Region – looks like heaven on earth. Along with its magnificent nature, this region is proud of its history and technical monuments. On the National Stud Farm territory in Kladruby nad Labem, you can see how the white breed of Starokladruby horses is bred.
- The Olomouc Region attracts tourists with its nature reserves and the Jeseníky Mountains with exceptional climatic conditions. This area is rich in its cultural traditions and ancient monuments.
- The Zlín Region has Czech traditions and folklore, good wine and plum brandy, delicious food, and mysterious castles. Visit the local town of Zlín with its unusual architecture in the Czech Republic. Thanks to the local businessman Tomáš Bati, who invited the most distinctive architects in the 1930s, the city has become a natural monument to functionalism.
- South Moravian Region – This hospitable region is considered a wine-growing region, as 96% of the Czech vineyards are located here. A region with beautiful picturesque nature and UNESCO Intangible Heritage Sites.
- Central Bohemian Region – the atmosphere of local towns and villages is created by the legacy of ancient royal dynasties, the prints of which can be found all over the region.
Old cities of the Czech Republic
In addition to castles in the Czech Republic, it is worth visiting ancient cities, in which a vast number of historical and architectural monuments are concentrated.
Cesky Krumlov is the most famous historical area of South Bohemia, located in the Sumava foothills, famous for its stunning ensemble of Gothic, Renaissance, and Baroque buildings. Cesky Krumlov Castle is the largest in the Czech Republic after Prague Castle, and it is also included in the UNESCO World Cultural Heritage List. The ensemble of the castle consists of 40 buildings and palaces, five courtyards, and a garden.
The castle on the old trade route was founded in the 1st half of the 13th century by representatives of the Vitkovich family. The architecture and the castle’s name determined its geographical location: the court was located in a loop formed by the bend of the Vltava River (die Krumme Au – crooked meadow). Podhradie got the name Latran (latus – side, side), and it was also planned to consider the river’s bends. Initially built in the Gothic style, the vast castle complex has changed – first in the Baroque style, then in the Rococo style. In the city, tourists will be interested in a garden and a park, theater, galleries, cellars. The dominant feature of the old town is the church of St. Vitus rising on the steep bank of the river. Buildings decorated in the sgraffito style, red-tiled roofs, and gilded turrets give Krumlov a unique charm and style.
Not far from Krumlov, only 32 kilometers away, there is a new (opened in 2012) attraction – a wooden observation tower at the top of Kremlin, above Lake Lipno. This tower is unique among structures of this kind for its pedestrian zone – a wooden suspended frame begins on the ground and gradually rises to the top of the building. In 2012, this site was named the best new Czech landmark.
Telč is a city on the water, Moravian Venice, whose layout is due to the presence of three artificial reservoirs and a bypass channel – the former castle moat. The city’s historical core is an old fortress, which has retained its appearance since the Middle Ages. The Gothic castle on the water was founded in the 13th century, and the building acquired its modern appearance during the reconstruction in the 16th century. The main building of the old city is a palace with rich interiors:
- The Golden
- Theater and Knights’ Halls
- The All Saints’ Chapel
- A treasury
- A banquet hall decorated in the sgraffito technique
The town of Jindrichuv Hradec is home to the third-largest castle complex in the Czech Republic, built in the 13th century on the historical border between Bohemia, Moravia, and Austria. The complex’s main building is a Gothic palace with valuable paintings, the Church of St. John the Baptist with rare frescoes, and a former Minorite monastery. The city is famous for its annual classical music (Concertino Praga) and folk music (Folková růže) festivals.
Brno is the capital of Moravia and the second most important and largest city in the Czech Republic. The most recognizable symbol of Brno is the Gothic castle of Spielberg, the silhouette of which is depicted on Czech coins. The court was founded in the 13th century on the summit of the Spielberg mountain.
Once in Brno, it is worth exploring the Moravian Gallery, the second largest museum in the Czech Republic, famous for its rich collection. The gallery, founded in 1961, contains objects of free art – not only painting, graphics, and plastic arts from ancient times to the present, but also photography, applied art, and graphic design.
Also noteworthy in Brno is the Cathedral of Saints Peter and Paul, the Basilica of the Assumption of the Virgin Mary, the Church of St. Jacob, the Town Hall, the Church of St. Michael.
The historic town of Kutná Hora, the second largest after Prague in the 14th century, became famous for its silver mines. In the 16th century, after the cessation of silver mining, its importance fell, but the town retained its charm, becoming one of the most famous tourist centers in the country. Tourists may find it interesting to visit the Chapel of All Saints, built around 1400 at a Gothic cathedral in the cemetery of the Cistercian monastery in Sedlec. As a result of the cholera epidemic of 1318 and during the Hussite wars at the beginning of the 15th century, the cemetery grew considerably. The arriving bones began to be piled up in pyramids. In 1870, by order of the Schwarzenberg’s, woodcarver Frantisek Rint decorated the chapel’s interior with bones from 40,000 skeletons, from the altar to the chandelier.
It is worth visiting Vlašský Dvor – a cultural monument of Kutnogorsk, which is a complex of buildings from the 13th – 14th centuries, once the residence of Czech kings, with an old mint; the stone palace Hradek, which today houses the Silver Museum with an exciting exposition; Cathedral of St. Barbara – Czech Notre Dame de Paris.
Plze, the fourth largest city in the Czech Republic, located in the country’s west, stretches at the confluence of four rivers – Uslava, Uglava, Radbuza, and Mži. Pilsen is famous for the following attractions: the tallest church tower in the Czech Republic (103 m) – the tower of the Cathedral of St. Bartholomew, the cathedral itself with the late Gothic Sternberg Chapel, the Town Hall, the dungeons, the Museum of West Bohemia, the third largest synagogue in the world in the Moor-Romanesque style.
As you know, Plze is the capital of Czech brewing, and Plze beer of the Prazdroi and Gambrinus brands is brewed here. The beer is produced according to the old technology, unchanged since the century before last, and the inimitable taste to the drink, according to the Czechs, is given by the Pilsen water, its malt, and the unique storage conditions in the cellars. You can learn more about the history of the Plzeský Prazdroj brewery in the Brewery Museum.
The Terezin Fortress was founded at the end of the 18th century at the confluence of the Laba and Ohři rivers, 5 km south of Litoměřice. During World War II, the German invaders set up a concentration camp for Jews in the fortress, the so-called Terezin ghetto, which housed a little less than 140,000 people (of whom 33,000 died while in the ghetto). Some of the Jews (88,000 people) were deported to Auschwitz and other death camps. By the end of the war, 17,247 people had survived in the ghetto. Soviet troops liberated Terezin on May 9, 1945. Today Terezín houses the Memorial to the Victims of the Concentration Camp.
Medical resorts of the Czech Republic
The Czech Republic is a recognized destination for health tourism, and the country is famous for its thermal and mineral spas, the most famous of which is Karlovy Vary. The city was founded by Emperor Charles IV century. 1358 appeared in a place where 132 mineral springs break through to the earth’s surface, 12 of which are with healing water. The resort has a glorious history; the entire world elite came here to improve their health: monarchs, prominent political figures, famous people of art. The city’s streets repeat the bends formed by the Teplaya River, across which openwork bridges are thrown. The town is decorated with picturesque buildings of different eras, parks, squares. In addition to medical procedures shown for a wide range of diseases, and pleasant walks in the bosom of nature, you can always enjoy your time here. For example, the city hosts the Karlovy Vary Film Festival – the second most important in Europe after the Cannes Film Festival.
Marianske Lazne -the second most important resort in the Czech Republic after Karlovy Vary, whose history begins in 1528 – discovered Ferdinand’s spring. Today there are about 40 mineral springs here.
Another Czech town with a spa tradition is Frantiskovy Lazne, popular mainly among women, as the local mud successfully treats infertility.
You can find out more about the country’s resorts in our article “Therapeutic spas of the Czech Republic,” which tells about the most popular places for treatment on the waters.
Aquapark Babylon is located in Liberec and is part of the largest entertainment center in the Czech Republic Babylon. The interiors of the water park resemble antique baths, and the most popular attractions are the “wild river” and the adrenaline “space bowl.”
The AquaPalace water park is located in the village of Čestlice near Prague – it is the largest water park in Central Europe. The complex consists of the Palace of Waves, the Palace of Adventures, and Relaxation. There is a diving tunnel for lovers of deep-sea diving, and sauna lovers can visit the classic Finnish saunas, Roman baths, and Russian baths.
The Aqua-Olomouc water park is located in Olomouc and is famous for its adrenaline-pumping attractions. Visitors are also offered a massage, solarium, and tepidarium (dry heating zone).
Where to go in the Czech Republic
Prague Old Town
The Old Town of Prague (Old Town) is the central, oldest, and most popular part of the Czech capital. Everything that Prague is associated with is concentrated here: narrow cobbled streets, unique buildings built in different architectural styles from Gothic to Art Nouveau, beautiful copper doorknobs, orange roofs, and the indescribable charm of a medieval city.
The Charles Bridge
Charles Bridge is a famous Prague landmark, one of the recognizable symbols of the city, so adored by tourists.
The medieval Charles Bridge over the Vltava River is a pedestrian, free entrance, open around the clock.
The bridge connects two historical districts – Stare Mesto and Mala Strana.
The length of the Charles Bridge in Prague is 515.76 meters (usually rounded up to 520 meters).
In the very center of Prague Castle, there is a picturesque street called Zlata Ulichka. Along the cobblestone pavement, there are tiny multi-colored “gingerbread” houses built into the arches of the former fortress wall.
National Park “Bohemian Switzerland”
This reserve, which has no analogues in Europe, stretches from the town of Tisza in the Ustecky region to the Shluknovsky ledge in the Decinsky region. The park was founded on January 1, 2000, and became a Czech extension of the German Sächsische Schweiz National Park (Saxon Switzerland), founded 10 years earlier (1990). The Bohemian Switzerland Park is part of the vast natural complex of Labske Piskovce, and the main object of protection is the characteristic sandstone phenomenon – the “rocky sandstone town” of Etrschowické and Dečinské Stena, and the associated biological diversity. Tourists love to visit observation decks with unique views of sandy cliffs, bridges and castles created by nature. The park is popular with fans of active sports: climbers, cyclists, rafting and hiking enthusiasts.
Wild nature, which for a long time developed without human intervention, was discovered at the end of the 18th century by two Swiss artists of the Romantic era – Adrian Zingg and Anton Graf. Depicting this land in engravings and describing in poetry, they quickly spread the fame of it throughout Europe. The sites along the Elbe River canyon have become the cradle of modern tourism, becoming one of the first actively visited tourist attractions in Europe.
Not only artists came here for inspiration. Forts of robber knights, rock towns, legends about gnomes and fairies influenced the storyteller Hans Christian Andersen, poet R.M. Rilke, composers K.M. von Weber, Richard Wagner and others.
And today the Pravcicke Gate is a symbol of “Czech Switzerland”, conquering artists, for example, the snow-covered Silent Rocks became the scenery for the film “The Chronicles of Narnia – The Lion, the Witch and the Wardrobe”. It was here that Lucy visited the cave of the faun Tumnus, and all four brothers and sisters crossed the rocky bridge for the first time and looked at the endless forests of Narnia.
This was once a serious obstacle for the inhabitants of local villages. Once in 1877, at the U Zeleného stromu tavern in the town of Hřensko, five brave souls made a bet that they would sail on rafts from the Dolskoy mill to what was then called the “end of the world”. On rafts 4 meters long, they really safely reached Hrzhensk, in fact, becoming the founders of the tourist water route. The local prince Clari-Aldringen invited specialists from Italy, under whose leadership, through the labor of over two hundred workers, these sites became available to the public. Suspended bridges were thrown here, tunnels were built with the help of explosives. On May 4, 1890, the grand opening of the “Quiet” (“Edmond’s”) canyon took place. Since then, “at the very end of the world”, in fact, nothing has changed much,
The Moravian Karst, or Moravian Karst, is a nature reserve, one of the largest karst massifs in Europe, located in the Czech Republic, 30 km north of Brno.
The area stretches 25 km in length. Its width in some places is 6 km. The natural park covers an area of 92 sq. km. The highest height of rock formations in reserve is 734 m. The lowest place of Kras is the Macokha abyss, which has 138 m with the Punkva River at the bottom. For tourists, unique bridges (Upper and Lower) were equipped over the abyss, from which a stunning and, at the same time, a terrible panorama of the gorge opens up.
The most popular among tourists are the caves of the Moravian Kras, of which there are about 1,100 pieces. Only five underground cavities are equipped for excursions in the Moravian Beauty, among which it is worth mentioning the Punkva cave, through which the Punkva underground river of the same name flows; deep cave Macokha; Katezhinskaya cave with unique limestone formations – helictites growing horizontally; the Balcarka stalactite cave and the Stolbsko-Shoshuvsky caves with spacious underground corridors. Other attractions of the Moravian Karst include the Empty Trough and Dry Trough karst canyons and the White Water Gap.
Unique flora and fauna protect the reserve. Many species of plants and animals are endemic. In some caves, ancient rock paintings have been found on the walls.
On the reserve territory, the so-called “ecological trains” run, delivering tourists to remote points of the park. Tourists should remember that it is stably cold even in summer in the caves, so it is worth bringing a set of warm clothes with you.
Dancing House in Prague
The Dancing House in Prague is the image of a couple in dance, expressed in urban architecture. The house consists of two towers called “Ginger and Fred,” referring to the famous Hollywood dancer and actor couple Ginger Rogers and Fred Astaire. The comparison is indeed justified: one tower is straight, has the shape of a cylinder, expanding upward, and symbolizes a man. And the second tower – glass, depicts the figure of a woman with a narrow waist. In the dance, she seemed to lean against her partner. The building’s less flattering nickname is The Drunk House.
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