Malaysia is a Southeast Asia, made up of two parts separated by the South China Sea, West Malaysia (Malaya) and East Malaysia (Sabah and Sarawak). Western Malaysia is located in the south of the Malacca Peninsula, has borders with Thailand – in the north, with Singapore – in the south, with Indonesia along the Strait of Malacca. East Malaysia is located in the north of the island of Borneo (Kalimantan) and has borders with Brunei in the north and Indonesia in the south.
The ethnic composition is represented by Malays (50.4%), Chinese (23.7%), island tribes (11%), as well as Indians, and immigrants from other countries.
Administratively, Malaysia is divided into 13 states and two federal territories (Kuala Lumpur city and Labuan island), ruled by the descendants of ancient dynasties (9 sultanate states), governors (Penang and Malacca), presidents (Sarawak and Sabah).
Today Malaysia, which has long been considered the crossroads of trade interests between Europe and Asia, is one of the most dynamically developing countries in the Asian region. Even though the 1997 crisis considerably slowed down the country’s economic development, the 1998 program of harsh measures aimed at stabilizing the economy allowed Malaysia to recover the lost development indicators rather quickly.
Until 1970, the basis of the Malaysian industry was the extraction of mineral resources, in particular, after the 1970s. Natural reserves of tin were depleted, oil production, the production of liquefied gas, and the processing industry began to develop. Electronic engineering, chemical, and light industries are growing confidently. In addition, several duty-free zones have been established in Malaysia.
Climate and weather in Malaysia
The climate of Malaysia is equatorial, monsoon: in Borneo and the south of the Malacca Peninsula – tropical, in the rest of the peninsula – subequatorial monsoon. In the lowland areas, the average monthly air temperatures range from 25 to 28 ° С. During the day, the temperature can rise to + 32 ° C, and it can drop to + 21 ° C at night. The climate is temperate in the mountains and cools at high altitudes.
Precipitation occurs evenly throughout the year, but seasonality associated with monsoons is observed. In summer, intense monsoons come from the Indian Ocean, resulting in a wet summer season on the Malacca Peninsula. In Borneo, especially in the north, monsoons are observed in winter but from the Pacific Ocean. The annual rainfall in coastal and low-lying areas is 1500-2500 mm per year. In the north of Borneo, there is more rainfall than in the Malay Peninsula. In the mountainous regions within the country, the precipitation rate reaches 5000–6500 mm.
The best time to visit the country is between March and September. Traveling to Malaysia in November, December, and January is undesirable – Europeans very poorly tolerate the heat and heavy humid air of this period.
Cities and regions
The largest city in Malaysia is the capital Kuala Lumpur with a population of 1 809 699 people (data for 2009). The town, founded in 1857 as a mining village, today is a vast metropolis, the country’s commercial and industrial center. Compared to other states of Southeast Asia, Malaysia stands out for a very high level of urbanization. In Malaysia, there are about 40 large cities with a population of over 50 thousand people.
The second-largest city in Ipoh on the Malacca Peninsula, the administrative center of the state of Perak with a population of 383 thousand inhabitants (as of 1991).
In the south of the Malacca Peninsula is the third-largest city in Malaysia – Johor Bahru, the administrative center of the state of Johor. The town has developed rubber processing, food, canning, timber processing industries.
The fourth and fifth places in terms of the number of inhabitants are respectively occupied by the cities of Klang (the administrative center of the state of Selangor, a large port) and Petaling (the satellite city of the capital, located in the southwest). The towns of Klang and Petaling are part of the metropolitan area of Kuala Lumpur.
Borneo Island (Kalimantan)
Borneo is an island located on the equator, in the north of which there are 2 Malaysian states – Sabah and Sarawak. The island is spread in the South China Sea between the Malay Peninsula and the Philippines and divided between Malaysia, Indonesia, and Brunei.
The island is known for its vast ancient forests, majestic mountains with caves and caverns, excellent beaches, coral reefs scattered along the coast, unique flora and fauna, and various peoples inhabiting it.
The state of Sabah occupies the northeastern tip of the island of Borneo. Sabah attracts tourists with white sandy beaches, picturesque islands, and natural parks. The waters off the coast of Sabah are surprisingly clear and inhabited by various underwater fauna, interesting for diving enthusiasts. The peculiarity of this part of the island is that most hotels do not have their beaches, as a result of which tourists go to the nearest (3-5 minutes on the way) or more distant (up to half an hour on the way) islands to sunbathe and swim. There are many islands suitable for beach recreation, and they are located along the entire coast of Sabah. Small motorboats and boats constantly ply between them. Thus, a vacation in Sabah can turn into a real adventure, with the daily discovery of new unexplored territories.
This is one of the islands of the Borneo archipelago, covered with impenetrable jungle surrounded by white sandy beaches. This resort is a mecca for divers from all over the world. Underwater visibility is 18-40 meters. The island is formed by living corals and has a diameter of only 500 m. The nearest town is Simpson in the state of Sabah, 35 km from the island. Diving in Sipadan is challenging to compare with other diving areas.
More than 70 species of coral and 200 species of marine fish live here. The program for diving in Sipadan is extensive: from the simplest in the coastal part to night dives, drifting along the currents, exploring underground caves, etc.
It is best to observe the marine life of Sipadan near the shallows at a depth of 3 – 25 m. The best time for diving and fishing on the island is from mid-February to mid-December, when visibility underwater is up to 40 meters. Entry to the island is restricted and only possible with prior permission: no more than 120 people per day.
Dive sites on Sipadan Island:
- Barracuda Point – Cape Barracuda
- Coral Garden – Coral Garden
- Hanging Gardens – Hanging Gardens
- Lobster Lair – Lobster Lair
- Mid Rif – Medium reef
- North Point – North Cape
- South Point – South Cape
- Staghorn Crest – Antler
- The Drop Off – Break
- Turtle Cavern – Turtle Cave
- Turtle Patch – Turtle Patch
- West Ridge – West Ridge
- Whitetip Avenue – Whitefin Avenue
Langkawi is a famous resort, an island part of 104 islets scattered along the northwestern coast of Malaysia in the Andaman Sea. The most romantic island of Malaysia is located near the border with Thailand in the Strait of Malacca to the left of mainland Malaysia. From the Malay language, the word “Langkawi” is translated as “red-brown eagle.” Eagles with brick-colored plumage do live on the island. Langkawi is one of the most beautiful islands in Southeast Asia. It is more than 5 million years old, and its nature has been preserved almost in its original form. Langkawi is surrounded by many small and large islands, which create an indescribable beauty of the seascape.
The island’s main attraction is the purest white sand, which has unique medicinal properties: it can alleviate the suffering of people suffering from rheumatism and osteochondrosis. Langkawi also attracts tourists who prefer a quiet and comfortable stay away from the bustle of the city. To see Langkawi from a bird’s eye view, it is worth taking a cable car ride up the island’s highest mountain – Mat Chinchang. The Langkawi Cable Car begins in the tourist village of Oriental Village with a park, shops, zoos. The funicular lifts tourists to a height of 708 meters. The length of the cable car is 2.2 km. The ascent takes about an hour. Along the way, the booth makes three stops at observation decks located at different heights. Climbing to the top of the mountain, in good weather, in the north you can see the shores of Thailand, and in the south – Indonesia. You can spend the whole day at the top of the hill, moving between the gorges on the suspension bridges.
Special informers indicate the time of sunrise and sunset. By this time, the cable car is making an additional trip – for photographers hunting for these natural phenomena.
Langkawi has many legends, stories, and legends, and they surround any attraction of the island. There is even a Park of Legends, which introduces tourists to the heroes of Langkawi myths. The most romantic tale is about Princess Makam Mahsuri, executed on false charges of adultery and cursed the island, thereby causing the residents a lot of trouble. However, the flow of people to the tomb of the princess, built of white marble, does not dry out. Next to the grave of the heroine of the myth is a well built by her, the water which never dries up.
Tourists are also often told the legend about the Telaga Tudzhukh lakes, located in tiers on a sloping mountain slope, and the myth of the 90-meter Durian Perangin waterfall, where the fairies of the mountains come to the pool at the foot of it.
Pulau Payar Marine Park is a 3-hour drive from Langkawi, and its crystal-clear waters are home to many species of marine life. It is worth visiting the Underwater World Oceanarium, where more than 5 thousand inhabitants of the deep sea are gathered.
Tourists will also be offered an educational excursion to a crocodile farm in the town of Kubang Badak. You can meet the five-meter crocodile Bujang Kawi, which was born without a jaw, and therefore the workers feed him like a small child. You can also go to the Pulau Singa Besar Nature Reserve to see monkeys, deer, iguanas, wild boars, pheasants living there.
The best beaches on the island are Pantai Pasir Hitam, Pantai Kok, Tanjung Ru, Pantai Cenang and Pantai Tentah. The last two beaches are the meeting point for tourists looking to have fun in nightclubs and restaurants. Senang is considered the most beautiful beach in Langkawi, where water sports enthusiasts from all over Asia flock. Langkawi beach with black sand – Pantai Pasir is very popular.
The capital of the island is the city of Kuah. In Malay, this word means “sauce.” According to another local legend, two giants overturned a bowl of curry sauce in this place. Since 1987, Langkawi has been declared a duty-free zone, so prices here are several times lower than in the rest of Malaysia.
It is the largest island in the eponymous Redang archipelago, 7 km long and 6 km wide. It is located off the northeastern coast of Peninsular Malaysia, 45 kilometers from Kuala Terengganu.
There are many hotels on the island of Redang. However, divers from all over the world are not embarrassed: they are attracted by the Redang Marine Park, created to preserve the unique marine ecosystem. On the reserve territory, there are about 500 species of coral, more than a thousand species of invertebrates, and 300 species of fish.
Two massive mushroom-shaped coral formations are popular diving spots for divers in Redang, which are some of the most significant coral structures on the east coast of Peninsula Malaysia. Their age is estimated at hundreds of years. The more enormous “mushroom” diameter is 24.5 meters, the smaller one is 23.2 meters. The coral formation caves abound in a variety of marine life.
Diving enthusiasts also love to dive into two sunken warships – the Prince of Wells and Repeals.
In August and September, the migration of giant shellless turtles takes place in the coastal waters of Redang. In addition to them, Bissa turtles and green turtles live in these places.
The best time to visit Redang is from April to September, as the visibility in the water reaches 30 meters.
This Malaysian island is famous because it is on it that the Hollywood musical “South Pacific” is developed. Tioman Island is the largest in the eastern part of the Malaysian coast, and it is part of the Pahang National Park. You can get here by cruise ships, catamarans from Kuala Lumpur, Singapore, and Kuantan.
Tioman Island is one of the ten most beautiful and cleanest islands globally. Many ancient myths and legends surround it. According to one of them, the princess-goddess in the form of a dragon was so amazed by the local beauties that she decided to become the island of Tioman, forgetting about the purpose of her journey to her lover who was waiting for her in Singapore. At the same time, the princess took an oath to meet, give shelter and protection to all travelers who find themselves on the island of Tioman for all time. The princess kept her promise, so Tioman met all tourists with a mild climate, clear waters, picturesque landscapes.
Along the west coast of Tioman, there are magnificent beaches washed by clear azure waters – Genting, Tekek, and Selang. Those wishing to relax in a separate chalet should go to the east of the island, to Juara Beach. Divers and tourists looking for economical accommodation can recommend the north of Tioman and the Aer Batang beach, famous for its chic coral gardens and inexpensive hotels.
Tioman Island is of coral origin, with 130 species of coral and 300 species of fish found in its coastal waters. There are a total of 20 diving sites on Tioman. Divers will also love Pulau Raua, an hour’s boat ride from Tioman.
Tourists should be prepared that all hotels in Tioman Island are detached villas, 6-8 rooms, made in traditional Malay style using natural wood, without marble and ceramic tiles underfoot.
The main natural attraction of Tioman is the mountain with a forked peak located in the center of the island – “Donkey’s Ears,” overgrown with a tropical forest, which is home to various exotic animals.
The holiday season on Tioman lasts from May to November, while this region receives heavy rainfall in winter.
Pangkor is another famous resort in Malaysia. The island, which measures 12 km long and 4 km wide, is located off the west coast of Peninsular Malaysia, opposite the port of Lumut, in the state of Perak. A high-speed ferry runs between Pangkor and the mainland. At low tide, the neighboring island of Giam can be reached on foot.
The most popular beaches of Pangkor:
Pasir Bogak: shallow sandy beach with clear water, surrounded by coral reefs; Teluk Ketapang: Another name is Turtle Bay, located north of Pasir Bogak. From May to July, one can observe giant turtles laying eggs there;
Teluk Nipah: North of the first two. A sparsely populated beach, famous for the Coral Bay located on it; Pantai Puteri Devi, or “the beach of a princess in love”: it is there that the famous resort “Pan Pacific” is located.
Of the sights of the island, the Dutch fort built in the 17th century deserves attention. Pangkor has many restaurants and plenty of opportunities for active water sports, especially popular with divers. They are advised to visit the Teluk Nipah Park reserve with a lagoon surrounded by a coral reef. There are also many diving sites to the south, 27 km from Pangkor, around the Sembilan Islands. The landscape is large boulders covered with sea sponges. Representatives of the marine fauna are fusiliers, parrotfish, sea bass, seahorses, wrasses, groupers, rays, reef fish, and barracudas.
Wildlife lovers should go to the Pangkor Forest Reserve, where monkeys, deer, and big-nosed toucans meet.
The island of Penang
Located off the coast of Pulau Penang, it is also called “Betelnut Island” and lies not far from the northwestern coast of the Malacca Peninsula. Its area is 285 sq. km., the island is connected with the mainland by a 13.5 km long bridge, the third-longest bridge in the world.
Penang was made famous by the English merchant Francis Light, who founded a colony here in 1798. Each newcomer to the island had the right to take for himself as much land as he could clear. Soon the jungle retreated, and the first city arose – Georgetown, named after the English emperor George III. Penang was declared a duty-free port, and among the inhabitants of the town were people from all over the world: Europe, India, China, and Burma. The main attractions of Georgetown are buildings of the early 19th century in the colonial English and East Asian style, including ancient temples and old mansions. Tourists will be offered to visit Fort Cornwallis, St. George’s Church (1818), the Chinese palace of Khu Kongsi, the Hindu temple of Sri Mariamman. It is worth visiting the Temple of Serpents, where the serpents live, the Buddhist temple of Kek-Lok-Si, Temple of the Goddess of Mercy, dedicated to the Chinese goddess of mercy Guanyin. Jrojetown is also worth visiting the Penang Historical Museum with an exhibition of works by local artists.
Today life in the capital is in full swing: many night entertainment establishments, street restaurants, shops, markets, and night bazaars.
The natural attraction of the island is Mount Penang, located southwest of Georgetown. At its top, there is an observation deck, from which a stunning panorama of the island opens up. You can get there in the funicular. Tourists interested in flora can be recommended to visit the Penang Botanical Garden, decorated with a waterfall. An excursion to the Orchid Garden, a trip to a diamond factory, to the Lake Town Resort water park is also enjoyable. Scuba diving in the area of the neighboring islands of Bidur, Song, and Tellur is popular.
Where to go in Malaysia
Batu Caves is a giant cave complex dedicated to Hindu shrines. It is located 13 km north of the center of Kuala Lumpur. This is an absolute miracle of nature and one of the main attractions of Malaysia. Almost 1.5 million tourists and pilgrims from all over the world visit the Batu Caves annually. The golden statue of God Murugan, 42.7 meters high, meets travelers. The tough hides about 30 caves. The most famous is the Temple Cave, which houses several Hindu relics. The famous colorful staircase with 272 steps leads here.
Petronas Twin Towers
Petronas Towers are located in the capital of Malaysia, the metropolis of Kuala Lumpur. It has been the city’s most famous and most visited landmark for over two decades.
The Twin Towers were built in 1998 in the heart of Kuala Lumpur. Argentine architect Cesar Pelli designed them. The towers were produced from 1992 to 1998. The buildings are similar in shape to two ears of corn. The general construction reminds us that Malaysia is a Muslim country. The Islamic style is expressed in the form of the bases of the towers, which form an 8-pointed star from two squares – this form is a symbol of integrity, unity, harmony, and stability in this religion.
Zoo “Zoo Negara”
Zoo Negara is the national zoo of Malaysia, which receives over a million visitors annually. The park covers 110 acres of land that is considered part of the renowned SEAZA Zoo Association.
The zoo’s opening took place on November 14, 1963, with the participation of the first Prime Minister of Malaysia. Now the park is supervised by the country’s Zoological Society. The main feature of Zoo Negara is the most natural conditions in which animals live.
There are 5137 animals of 476 species in Negara. The collection features elephants, hippos, giraffes, rhinos, lions, tigers, leopards, kangaroos, deer, and many other unique animals. There is a large aquarium and a bird section. More than 90% of the inhabitants are kept in spacious aviaries, the landscape of which corresponds to natural nature. This zoo is considered one of the most popular and largest zoos in Asia.
Istan Negara Royal Palace
The palace of Sultan Istan Negara is the official residence of the King of Malaysia – His Majesty Yang Di Pertuan Agong. This is undoubtedly one of the main attractions of the capital. The palace is located on a small hill near the city center. The territory of the court is a natural garden decorated with flower beds, lawns, and groves. The gate is guarded by horse and foot guards in picturesque traditional British colonial form. Many tourists gather to watch the daily changing of the guard at the palace. The palace serves as the venue for official royal ceremonies and high-level events.
Menara Television Tower Kuala Lumpur
The Menara TV Tower is located in the capital of Malaysia, Kuala Lumpur, 2 kilometers from the Petronas Towers. It is the tallest in Southeast Asia and the seventh-tallest in the world. In addition, it is the only TV tower located in the forest. The height of the Menara Tower in Kuala Lumpur is 421 meters, including the antenna.
The Menara Tower was built to replace the Stell TV Tower, initially serving Kuala Lumpur. Its construction lasted from October 1991 to May 1996. On July 23, 1996, it opened for visitors and was officially launched on October 1, 1996.
Legoland in Malaysia
Legoland Malaysia is one of several children’s theme parks in the world built from LEGO bricks. The first Legoland opened in Denmark in 1968, and the Malaysian park opened the sixth on September 15, 2012. Similar amusement parks are open in Windsor, California, Dubai, Japan, Germany, Florida, and New York.
Legoland Malaysia is divided into seven themed zones with over 15,000 models in 60 million parts, designed primarily for children from 2 to 12 years old. In addition, the park includes a water park, SEA LIFE aquarium, and The Legoland Hotel.
Vacations Forever: 5 Best Resort Towns You Should Move to ASAP
Do you want to be on vacation all year long? Fewer people are using their part-time vacation homes as primary residences nowadays, but that doesn’t mean it couldn’t be a great choice for you.
Let’s go through the top resort towns you should move to if you want to be permanently on vacation.
1. Jackson Hole, United States
If you’re a big fan of skiing, you’re sure to enjoy Jackson Hole, Wyoming. Jackson Hole has very low crime rates, so it’s a safe place to live if you have a family.
It’s also home to some excellent schools, so you don’t need to be worried about your children’s education. However, Jackson Hole does have high costs of living, particularly for a city in a less populated state.
2. Estepona, Spain
Do you enjoy the south of Spain? Consider moving to Estepona. This city, which is located on the Costa del Sol, is populated along the coast. There are tons of amazing water sports you can try out when you visit Estepona.
Plus, you can check out interesting museums when you live in Estepona, like the Antonio Ordóñez Museum of Bullfighting, the Ethnographic Museum, and the Paleontology Museum. And, Estepona is home to delicious restaurants, so you’ll never get tired of eating the local cuisine. Those who are looking for a place to live in Estepona should check out choosemarbella.com.
3. Cartagena, Colombia
If you’re looking for a great beach city, you’ll certainly want to consider Cartagena. There are plenty of resorts you can check out, or you can hit the beaches yourself.
Cartagena is also one of the cheaper cost of living options when it comes to beach cities. However, if you’re a vegetarian or have dietary restrictions, Colombia can be a difficult country to navigate.
4. Palm Springs, United States
Palm Springs is an interesting resort city. It’s extremely popular with seniors and members of the LGBTQ community (along with, of course, people who fall under both categories).
Palm Springs is the perfect place to live for people who love golfing or playing tennis. But be forewarned, you’ll need a car to get around Palm Springs since things are spread out and public transportation can be limited.
5. Todos Santos, Mexico
While Cabo San Lucas is one of the most popular resort city choices out there, it’s probably not a place you want to live long term. So, why not try out one of the neighboring towns? Todos Santos is one great option.
Todos Santos is home to a great community of artists, so people who love creativity won’t want to miss out. Plus, Todos Santos is one of the safest resort towns out there. And, the city is becoming more and more popular, so you’ll be trendy by moving to Todos Santos.
Move to These Resort Towns Today
What are you waiting for? Any of these resort towns are a great option for your next stage in life.
Are you looking for more lifestyle advice? Make su
Estonia Travel Guide: Best Places to Visit And Things To Do
Estonia is one of the brightest, most versatile, and diverse countries in northern Europe. Situated on the eastern coast of the Baltic Sea and washed by the waters of the Gulfs of Riga and Finland, Estonia offers tourists an incredible selection of natural landscapes, ancient monuments, and architectural wonders. Millennia of history, cultural traditions, lively and fascinating, historic cities, castles, and fortresses of the Crusader era, museums, and elegant museums from the time of the Empire. Two thousand five hundred islands, virgin forests and National parks, lakes, swamps, meteorite craters, and hundreds of kilometers of beaches – this is all Estonia!
With the latest technological advances, Estonia offers a unique cocktail of experiences where all the ingredients are perfectly matched. Excursions, entertainment, historical routes, shopping, gastronomic wonders, spa hotels, and the best beaches of the Baltic Sea – whatever plan you go on vacation, Estonia will undoubtedly bring them to life.
Despite its modest size, Estonia can surprise even the experienced traveler. It is easily accessible from any corner of Europe – by air, land, and water. Tallinn, the delightful and ancient capital of Estonia, and the main cities of Sweden and Finland are only hours apart. Guests from Warsaw will be delivered by a comfortable bus, and residents of St. Petersburg should not be late for the evening train. Breakfast can be ordered in the heart of Tallinn.
Magical Tallinn, an actual teleport city, a time machine in action.
The entire old town is included in the UNESCO World Heritage List as an example of conservation in northern Europe.
From a bird’s eye view, its shape repeats the heart – this is probably why it regularly steals hearts from impressionable tourists!
It is enough to climb one of the observation platforms to leave your own there, and there are many of them in the city.
And then walk the whimsically twisted streets, admiring the ancient fortress walls, towers, and underground passages – the Tallinn fortress is more than 700 years old, and it is also considered the standard of medieval architecture.
In addition to the fortress, the historic part of Tallinn will offer ancient temples, medieval mansions, museums, and, of course, restaurants – to celebrate your acquaintance with the city tastefully, and you have a choice of 1001 restaurants. Many of them have earned the laurels of the best in northern Europe.
The second most important city in the country is Tartu. It is considered the intellectual capital of Estonia, and it is not for nothing that its foundation is attributed to Prince Yaroslav the Wise. The oldest university, the most picturesque ruins of the cathedral, the most beautiful Botanical Garden, and the most “advanced” museums are located here. Another reason to visit Tartu is fairs, festivals, and other entertainment events. Thanks to the university and the student body, it is also the funniest city in Estonia.
In Narva, Rakvere, and Põltsamaa, ancient fortresses and majestic castles fans should take a ride.
Life here is quiet and unhurried, and only occasionally, the city’s peace is disturbed by music festivals and historical reconstructions.
The “summer” capital of Estonia, stylish and bright, will offer its guests spa hotels, health resorts on the shores of the Gulf of Finland, a pretty port with yachts, and the Old Town of the Hanseatic League.
But the main thing for tourists who come here is eight kilometers of sandy beach, the best in the country.
Those who love everything at once should go to Haapsalu. One of the most famous spa resorts, renowned for its traditions and admirers, Haapsalu also has a worthy historical dimension.
A medieval castle and an old cathedral, a vibrant Old Town, the Seaside Promenade – culture is perfectly combined with vacation motives.
And, of course, you cannot leave Estonia without seeing its islands. Choose the largest and most beautiful island of Saaremaa and its capital, old Kuressaare. The local Bishop’s Castle is considered the most harmonious in the country, and the climate is one of the best on the coast.
In short, why would you not come to Estonia – to have fun, improve your health, or intellectually enrich yourself, you will have a great vacation. Estonia will take care of this!
Estonian history is a journey of thousands of years. This northern country has managed to preserve the traditions and customs of its ancestors, Viking sagas, and tales of overseas kings while remaining a modern European state.
Estonia: the beginning of the beginnings
Historical evidence of life on these lands can be found already in the 9th millennium BC. The appearance of the first people on the territory of modern Estonia is associated with the end of the last known ice age. According to archaeologists, the oldest site of primitive people appeared on the banks of the Pärnu River, not far from Sindi, approximately in 9500 BC. There are several such settlements. They all belong to the Kund culture.
This ancient cultural stratum existed until the 5th millennium BC and is named after the Estonian city of Kunda. Its influence spread to the eastern Baltic states, Poland, and southern Finland. The settlements of hunters and anglers used stone tools of labor and defense, which are found in many archaeologists, right up to the Mesolithic period.
Over the millennia, cultural layers have changed, and along with them – the traditions of the peoples inhabiting these lands. Already in the third millennium BC, the inhabitants of the settlements began to raise livestock, and by the first millennium, this trade became the main activity of the settlers.
The path to the emergence of statehood
Three thousand years ago, the inhabitants of the territories that make up modern Estonia chose a sedentary lifestyle. As a rule, the new settlers preferred the coastal regions, and here the first settlements were built, fortified, and defended. Their traces can be found to this day on the island of Saaremaa, and these are Ridala and Asva, as well as the settlement of Iru near Tallinn.
At the same time, sea and land contacts with neighbors begin to develop. Archaeologists designate this period as the culture of stone burials. It is associated with the resettlement of the ancestors of the Germans from Scandinavia.
Estonia, at the beginning of our era, is the land of agriculture and cattle breeding. Already in the early Middle Ages, customs and traditional ways of rural life appeared, which Estonians managed to preserve to this day. Many historic villages still exist today.
The early Middle Ages are a crucial period in the formation of Estonia. New, fortified settlements are being built, a system of administrative registration of territories has been formed, and a small farm is taken as a unit of measurement – a typical family farm. There are still many of them in Estonia. The entire territory of the state is divided into 8 regions and counties, these are Virumaa, Läanemaa, Rävala, Saaremaa, Sakala, Ugandi, Harju County, Järvamaa.
By this period, an early feudal model of society was formed, where elders ruled the lands. The major Estonian epic, which tells the story of the medieval giant Kalevipoeg, was written just in the spirit of that time.
In the same historical period, around 1030, the campaign of Prince Yaroslav the Wise began in the northern lands. He founded the city of Yuryev, present-day Tartu.
A little later, local tribes recaptured Tartu. In the following centuries, the ancient Estonians, on the one hand, and the inhabitants of Pskov with Novgorod, on the other, regularly “exchanged pleasantries.”
Such raids on neighbors were considered in the Order of things. One of them even went down in history. It is known that the Estonians conflicted with the Scandinavian Vikings. The inhabitants of the largest Estonian island – Saaremaa, mainly distinguished themselves in this confrontation.
Possessing a solid fleet at that time, the Oeselians, that is, the islanders kidnapped the Norwegian Queen Astrid and her son, Prince Olaf.
Subsequently, it was canonized, and one of the most outstanding examples of medieval architecture in Estonia, St. Olaf’s Church, was named in its part.
The Estonian Vikings are also credited with the destruction of the Swedish capital of Sigtuna at the beginning of the 12th century. Visiting the island of Saaremaa, you can see with your own eyes the treasures of the Vikings, which were found here in many.
The Early Middle Ages: From the Crusaders to the Reformation
The beginning of the Middle Ages in Estonia is associated with the spread of Christianity. The faith of Christ came to these lands later than to central Europe, and if at the beginning these were missionary movements, then the planting of a new religion took place with fire and sword. Various organizations – the Teutonic Order, the Pope, German archbishops, Denmark, and the Kingdom of Sweden – advocated for Estonia’s conversion to Catholicism. Pagan ancestor cults have always been extreme in these parts, so the Northern Crusade decided to take drastic measures. In history, he remained under the name of Livonian.
The crusaders reached the Estonian lands by 1208. And in 1217, the battle of Viljandi took place, where the Estonians were defeated. Two years later, the territories of northern Estonia were conquered by the Danes, the south of the state began to belong to the German Order of the Swordsmen.
As a result of the conquests, these lands fell under the control of the powerful Livonian Order, which had occupied a substantial part of the modern Baltic.
At the same time, the Danish king granted Tallinn, which was considered a pearl among cities, the privileges of the Lübeck city law.
According to these laws, the capital of Estonia, like other cities of the Hanseatic League, was governed until the beginning of the twentieth century.
The conquered lands were transformed into bishoprics. Some of them were subordinate to the supreme authority in Riga. Denmark ruled others.
Of course, this did not consider the interests of the local population, and conflicts were inevitable.
The most famous uprising was St. George’s Night, which marked the Peasant War of Liberation beginning.
The riots, which the Danish authorities could not cope with, forced them to sell the land to the Teutonic Order. The era of German rule in Estonia began.
German landlords wielded tremendous power here for the next 700 years. The territories of modern Estonia and Latvia are called Livonia – a medieval community of interconnected small principalities that were part of the German church territories of the Holy Roman Empire. The feudal system formed in medieval Estonia put German knights and Catholic bishops at the pinnacle of power.
The rights and freedoms of residents were constantly infringed upon, right up to the introduction of serfdom. Taxes and taxes reached unprecedented levels, and all administrative and judicial power belonged to the German magistrates. At the same time, the Estonians themselves, who constituted the majority of the population, remained predominantly peasants and did not have personal freedom.
In large cities, merchant guilds and artisan communities were formed, and Rewal – modern Tallinn, Dorpat, now the city of Tartu, Pernau, familiar to us as Pärnu, and Viljandi were part of the powerful Hanseatic League. This commercial and defensive amalgamation of merchant guilds and merchant cities quickly became a monopoly in northern Europe.
Traces of those times are still easy to find on the streets of Tallinn.
Walking through the Old Town, pay attention to the medieval warehouses, equipped with hooks sticking out above the attic for lifting loads.
Perhaps due to the eternal conflict of interests of the trading cities with their merchants and the Catholic clergy represented by the German bishops, the Reformation movement in Estonia received support.
The middle of the 16th century was accompanied by riots, where ordinary people revolted against the Catholic clergy.
One of the manifestos of the Reformation, which the locals supported, was the holding of divine services and the publication of books in Estonian.
Middle-Ages: from the Livonian War to the Russian Empire
The sixteenth-century turned out to be a turning point – the Livonian Order, the Grand Duchy of Lithuania, the Russian tsar, Sweden, and the Danish kingdom started a major conflict over the division of territories. It remains in history as the Livonian War. Estonia became one of those lands for which they fought. Both the population and the economic component of the cities suffered greatly during the hostilities. As a result, the state was divided between Sweden, the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth, and Denmark.
Later, by the middle of the 17th century, all the territories of modern Estonia were ceded to the Kingdom of Sweden. The foundation of the University of Tartu, one of the oldest in Europe, dates back to this time. A significant event took place in 1632, at the direction of the Swedish king Gustav II Adolf.
Until the end of the 17th century, the economic stability of Estonia was ensured by trade. Large cities – Narva, Tallinn, Tartu, stood at the crossroads of trade routes, through which goods went to Europe or Russia and back. The agricultural sector also functioned well, and crafts were developing.
The Great Northern War changed the balance of power in the region. It ended in 1721 with the surrender of Sweden, and the Estonian lands came under the control of the Russian Empire.
Estonia as part of Russia
Most of the Baltic territories in the middle of the 18th century were ceded to Russia. Northern Estonia turned into Revel province, and southern lands, together with Latvia, formed Livonia. Emperor Peter the Great restored the rights of the German nobility, and they constituted a solid layer in the highest authorities. In religion, complete freedom was also allowed for both the Lutheran faith and the Russian Orthodox Church.
In the spheres of culture and education, progress was observed, books, newspapers, and magazines were published in Estonian, educational societies were actively working, defending the rights of the people, and literacy of the population was almost universal.
The population also recovered, undermined by wars and epidemics.
An important historical milestone was the abolition of serfdom by Tsar Alexander the First. It happened in 1816.
In the middle of the 19th century, Estonia and the rest of the empire entered the era of capitalism.
The industry developed by leaps and bounds, mechanical engineering, textile, and agricultural industries formed the basis of the economy.
Success in the economic field and the development of educational programs contributed to the birth of the Estonian national movement.
Towards a free Estonia
Activists of the national movement, formed at the end of the 19th century, demanded equal rights for Germans and indigenous people, Estonians, whose interests were infringed upon. These societies united writers, educators, journalists, representatives of the intellectual elite. They fought not only for legal rights but also for restoring traditions such as the Song Festival, ethnographic festivals, the first Estonian theater. However, despite these bold attempts, the Russians and Germans remained society’s economic and political elite.
In the wake of patriotic movements and extreme provocations, strikes and unrest broke out throughout Estonia. The tsarist government responded with harsh repression, but the uprisings continued in 1916, leading to the 1917 revolution. The interim government was entrusted with managing the former Estland province.
Riots continued this time between Estonian nationalists and Bolsheviks. However, now the First World War intervened in the plans of the future Soviet government. Estonia remained neutral in this conflict, demanding independence.
The wish came true on February 24, 1918 – finally, Estonia became a free state.
The first Estonian republic existed until 1940. The Second World War, its sad consequences, and the subsequent incorporation into the USSR lasted almost fifty years.
Estonia regained independence in 1991 with a rally known as the Singing Revolution.
Over the past thirty years, the state has been actively developing.
Tallinn’s old town was renovated for the 100th anniversary of independence.
Estonia is a member of the UN, the European Union, and NATO, a technically advanced and progressive country.
The system of electronic elections exists and is actively used here, and Skype was invented.
In 2002, Tallinn hosted the Eurovision Song Contest, and in 2018, the anniversary year for Estonian independence, many museums, palaces, and cultural sites were renovated.
The Tallinn Christmas market was recognized as the most beautiful in Europe by the European Best Destinations Association in the same year.
And regardless of political trends, time of year, and the weather outside the window, this beautiful, diverse, and close country is always waiting for you to visit!
Climate and weather in Estonia
Weather in cities
Several factors influence the Estonian climate. The proximity of the Baltic Sea, the Gulf Stream, Atlantic cyclones, temperate continental regions, fifteen hundred islands – this combination can be safely called unique.
The warmest month of the year is July, and the coldest is February.
However, the transitions between seasons are smooth and comfortable, and the country’s inhabitants are unfamiliar with both severe touches of frost and sweltering heat.
Estonia, located both on the mainland and on the islands, is surrounded by water on three sides. A large part of it is swamped, and the sea and the unusual natural relief create their microclimate. The weather in Estonia is most often described as humid and calm, relatively mild.
Winter in Estonia starts as expected – in December. As a rule, snowfalls at this time, which greatly adorn the landscapes, and there is a light frost conducive to walking.
It is one of the most popular tourist seasons of the year and is the time to celebrate Christmas and New Year.
January and February are colder and frosty, and there is a lot of snow. However, the air temperature rarely drops below – 6 … 8 ° C.
The weather is conducive to winter fun – ski runs, skating rinks in parks, sledding, fishing are open.
Estonians are a very athletic nation, and most of the time, joining their winter walks is entirely free.
Spring comes to Estonia not earlier than the second half of March. At this time of the year, frosts are still possible, mainly at night, but the sun is peeping more often.
April is also a fantastic month; May is considered more successful for a visit to the country. Spring can be seen in all its glory – in blooming parks, meadows outside the city, and bright city flower beds. Walking around Old Tallinn, do not deny yourself the pleasure of sitting at a table in an outdoor cafe – in May, such gatherings in the air are already quite comfortable.
If the purpose of your visit is to see summer Estonia, plan your trip in July. June is more like a warm spring than our usual summer. However, the month is exceptionally sunny and not too grainy.
The best time to visit Estonia is in June and July.
July is considered the warmest, sunniest, and driest month of the year. The air temperature warms up to + 22 … 24 ° C. + 30 ° C in Estonia is an abnormal heat. Such temperature cataclysms do not happen often.
Despite quite hot daily temperatures for Estonia, summer nights remain cool.
This feature of the local climate dictates to tourists their own rules for collecting luggage – a light jacket or sweater is required even in the middle of summer.
July and August are perfect for exploring Estonian cities and relaxing on their beaches.
The water temperature off the coast of Tallinn is usually around + 20 ° C, in rare cases warming up a few degrees higher.
Another good season to visit Estonia is autumn.
September usually welcomes guests of the country with dry, warm, and sunny weather.
This is an excellent time for both city walks and outdoor recreation. The first frosts and rains come with the onset of October, and although the average temperature is around + 10 ° C during the day, the mood is spoiled by prolonged precipitation.
It is freezing and wet in November. This is the time of real northern autumn, with fogs and falling snow. A warm hat and mittens are a must, or you can keep warm at the numerous spas, as well as at Christmas markets, which also start in November.
Estonian cities and regions
The territory of Estonia, divided in the 13th century by the knights of the Livonian Order into eight historical regions – Maakondas in Estonian, today, with the recognition of independence, has been divided into 15 counties. Almost all of them, to a greater or lesser extent, are of some interest to travelers.
The country’s history in stone can be studied in the regions of Harju, Lääne-Viru County, Ida-Virumaa. Here you will find the ruins of ancient castles, noble estates from the times of the empire, palaces, and all this against the backdrop of dunes and seemingly pristine coniferous forests. The main cities of the north of the country are the capital Tallinn, the seaside Paldiski, Maardu with its lake.
In addition to the beauties of ancient Tallinn, with its great fortress and streets of the Old Town, Harju County attracts with its excellent preservation of medieval buildings.
Temples and fortresses, historical landowners’ estates – manors, the Vasalemma palace, and park complex.
The views are also in order here – 17 landscape zones protecting unique natural monuments, including karst fields, heaths, springs, swamps, picturesque coastal cliffs.
County Ida-Viru County is famous for its ancient megaliths in Lahemaa National Park, on the coast of the Gulf of Finland.
Noble estates, the “village of captains” Käsmu, where the first ship of Estonian production was launched, the family estate of Admiral von Krusenstern, as well as a tour of the Neeruti National Park – you will not have time to get bored. Don’t miss Rakvere Castle – built-in 1226 by the Danes, it is perfectly preserved for its advanced age.
Ida-Viru County will appeal to nature explorers. Sea ledges – Klint, the highest waterfall in the country, the Oru landscape reserve, the most interesting in Estonia, the Alutaguse adventure park, the beaches of Lake Peipsi, and the opportunity to kayak on the Kurtna lakes.
The western regions of Estonia – Saaremaa, Hiiumaa, Pärnumaa, and Läänemaa, are an opportunity to have a fantastic seaside holiday, combining vacation with viewing architectural masterpieces. In this region, sea resorts, spa centers, mud baths, and sanatoriums are concentrated.
Saaremaa county is located on the largest island in Estonia and encompasses the islets nearby. They are loved by fans of sea sports – surfing and kiting, thanks to their windy weather. And in the holiday season, you can go swimming with seals, organized by the employees of Vilsandi National Park. Do not miss the Kaali meteorite crater, which is filled with water of an unusual jade hue. The lake is round in shape, 100 meters in diameter, and you can swim in it in summer.
The capital of the county is Kuressaare. There is a sea harbor, an airport, and the Episcopal Castle, one of the most beautiful in Eastern Europe.
The Old Town has also survived in Kuressaare, with colorful historical buildings.
Surfers and beachgoers also love hiiumaa.
The second-largest island in Estonia offers tourists a picturesque coastline with a total length of 310 km, wind, and waves for fans of sea activities, as well as hiking trails.
You can walk, for example, to the Kõpu lighthouse – the most ancient navigational landmark in the Baltics.
The largest county in Estonia is Pärnumaa. Its capital, the seaside port city of Pärnu, is considered the main Baltic resort in Estonia. Perfect sandy beaches with white dunes surrounded by pine forests are found here.
Neighboring Läänemaa attracts visitors thanks to the county capital, the old town of Haapsalu. Famous for the traditions of mud therapy – the first clinic in the country was opened here, he has not lost his “qualifications” even now. Do not miss the old Kurhaus on the seaside promenade – a beautiful wooden building from the 19th century with a concert hall. And in the center of the city, you will find a 13th-century bishop’s castle, whose ruins are majestic.
The center of the country is beautiful during the warm season. Gardens are blooming, historic estates are opening their doors, and landscaped parks are inviting guests. Raplamaa, Viljandi County, and Järvamaa counties offer many exciting walks.
For example, in Raplamaa, it is suggested to visit the “Golden Ring of Raplamaa Manors.” The program includes noble estates, old churches, historical manors, which are now open as crafts centers. Hikers should pay attention to the limestone plateau in Maryamaa parish.
Viljandi County is visited for the sake of the central city – Viljandi, with a very ancient and venerable history. The first settlements here date back to the 5th century BC, the Viking Age. Written references to the city date back to 1154, and in the 12th century, the first permanent settlement appeared on the site of Viljandi. At the beginning of the XIII century, these lands were conquered by order of the Swordsmen, and already in 1224, a stone fortress was erected here, which was considered the largest in the Baltic. The defense and the city were called Fellin. Under this name, they were part of the Hanseatic League.
In Järva will appeal to fans of nature and lovers of history. Here you can visit the historic Albu estate and then walk in the Kõrvemaa landscape reserve. Bird watchers will especially appreciate this park; you can watch rare black storks and golden eagles here.
The legendary shores of Lake Peipsi are the birthplace of the Tartumaa and Jõgevamaa regions. The historical battles of the Russian-Swedish and the Livonian War did not pass unnoticed; numerous castles and fortresses in the east of the country have survived to this day in the form of picturesque ruins.
County Tartu County – the citadel of knowledge and scientific progress. Tartu, the region’s central city and the second most populous in the country, boasts a rich history. One of the oldest in Eastern Europe, Tartu was founded by Yaroslav the Wise in 1030 as the city of Yuryev. In addition to the university, one of the oldest in Europe, Tartu is famous for theaters, museums, architectural monuments, pretty streets of the Old Town.
The vicinity of Lake Peipsi, located nearby, will be an excellent competitor to seascapes.
You can come here for a whole vacation and not have time to see all the exciting places in the area – ancient manors, the famous “Onion Route” – a historical route through museums and castles, the beautiful Alatskivi Palace.
The amazing glacial landscapes of Jõgevamaa county take us back to the time of the epic about the exploits of Kalevipoeg, the giant warrior.
Mysterious protected forests, lakes, giant boulders, as if forgotten here by a strong man – everything breathes with legends.
One of the most exciting places in the county is the town of Põltsamaa. Once there was the capital of the Livonian Kingdom, with its castle, which welcomes guests in the city center today. By the way, Põltsamaa is also considered the wine capital of Estonia – fruit and berry and fruit wines are produced here, arranging colorful festivals and fairs in summer.
In winter, the southern regions of Valga County, Võrumaa, and Põlvamaa are especially popular with Estonian residents and visitors. The best ski resorts are located here, and the hilly terrain is favorable for snowmobiling and sledding. Valga County is also popular with professionals – it hosts the qualifying rounds of the European Championships and the World Cup in cross-country skiing. In summer, the freestyle jumps are used as an observation deck.
Põlvamaa will appeal to fans of ethno-tourism. Here are the settlements and villages that have preserved the traditional way of life, all against the backdrop of marvelous nature. National parks offer hiking trails of any degree of difficulty, and you can walk along swamps, cliffs, and canyons.
An additional highlight is meteorite craters, and there are four of them in the area. Moreover, the diameter of the deepest is about 80 meters.
Võrumaa county will appeal to wildlife researchers. The main pride of the region is the Hinni Canyon, a mysterious valley that gives rise to the Rõuge Trail. Having passed it to the end, you will see the pasture of the indigenous abodes of these places – the reindeer.
The largest lake in Estonia and the country’s highest point, Suur Munamägi Hill, 318 meters high, is also waiting for you on the route.
Where to go in Estonia
The Tallinn Zoo was founded in 1939.
Today the collection numbers over 350 animal species living on 89 hectares. The zoo’s expositions include Alpine, Central Asian, South American, Arctic, and many other zones.
The zoo is proud of the collection “Tropical House,” rare for northern latitudes: the inhabitants of the tropical jungle were settled here.
Town Hall Square
Each ancient European city has its central square with a town hall founded in medieval times. Such areas were usually used as a gathering place during some important events and as a trading platform. Tallinn is also no exception and has its center – Town Hall Square.
Monument to the battleship “Rusalka.”
A bronze angel on the seashore holds a cross in his hand held high above his head. He points to the place of death of the battleship “Rusalka.” The statue, created by the sculptor A. Adamson, was installed in Kadriorg Park in 1902 on the 7th anniversary of the shipwreck.
Fat Margarita Tower
A medieval maritime city is, first of all, towers and fortress walls, in a word, structures intended to defend the city from invading invaders. Today the Great Sea Gate and the Fat Margarita have turned into monuments reminding native Tallinn residents and guests of the town about the terrible times. Fat Margarita was “born” in the 16th century: a giant armory tower (155 loopholes) with a diameter of 25 meters and a height of 20 meters was erected next to the Sea Gate.
Kadriorg Palace and Park
Kadriorg is considered a prestigious area of Tallinn. The tranquil area is famous for its rich history and the main attractions – the Kadriorg Palace and park. Now on its territory is the residence of the Estonian president and several embassies of other states. The preserved wooden houses are also of interest; Estonia’s prominent figures of literature and art lived in them in the 1920s – 1930s.
Aquapark in Tallinn
Aquapark in Tallinn is a water spa at the Kalev Spa hotel located in the center of the “old town” next to Kanuti Park. Town Hall Square is just a 7-minute walk from the water park. In addition, within walking distance of many attractions is the center of Tallinn – Dominican Monastery, Alexander Nevsky Cathedral, Dome Cathedral, St. Peter and Paul Church, St. Nicholas Church, Church of the Holy Spirit, Church of St. Nicholas the Wonderworker, Toompea Castle, Kiek-de- Kyok and other objects.
Czech Travel Guide: Best Places to Visit And Things To Do
The Czech Republic, or the Czech Republic, is a central European state bordering Poland in the north, Germany in the west, Austria in the south, and Slovakia in the east. The capital of the Czech Republic is the city of Prague, which is one big attraction in the open air. The country covers an area of 78 866 km², has 10 610 947 people (2016). The largest cities are Prague, Brno, Pilsen, Ostrava.
According to legend, the ancestors of today’s Czechs, led by their leader Czech, settled on the territory of the modern Czech Republic, which has been inhabited since the Stone Age. The first chronicle mentions settlements on the Czech land date back to the end of the 9th century when princes from the Přemyslid clan united these lands. In the Middle Ages, the Czech kingdom had significant influence. Still, the religious conflicts that arose (the Hussite wars in the 15th century and the Thirty Years’ War in the 17th century) significantly weakened it. Soon the kingdom fell under the rule of the Habsburgs and became part of Austria-Hungary.
After the end of the First World War and the fall of Austria-Hungary in 1918, the Czech Republic, Slovakia, and Subcarpathian Rus united into the independent republic of Czechoslovakia. Germany occupied the country in 1939. At the end of World War II, the Czech Republic found itself in the Soviet camp, which predetermined its history until 1989. On January 1, 1993, Slovakia separated from the Czech Republic, and both countries gained independence. Today’s Czech Republic has been a NATO member since 1999, and it has been a member of the European Union since 2004.
The Czech Republic is one of the most popular tourist destinations in Europe. Regardless of the season, the country annually is visited by about 50 million people—the choice of tourist routes in the Czech. Republic is so extensive that it is worthwhile to decide in advance which direction of tourism interests you at the moment and which should be left for subsequent visits. The most attractive are historical routes since the country has many objects that will be of interest to fans of antiquity: castles, fortresses, castles. Some cities in the Czech Republic are included in the UNESCO World Cultural Heritage List.
Climate and weather in the Czech Republic
The climate of the Czech Republic is moderate continental with features of the sea. Summer in the region is warm, with daytime temperatures of + 23 … + 25 ° С, with a lot of precipitation. Winter is cloudy, cool, in the day around 0 … + 3 ° С, and at night -5. -2 ° С, snow often falls. In winter, ski resorts start operating in the mountains.
The minimum precipitation occurs in spring and autumn, and this time is considered the most comfortable for excursions and travel around the country.
The weather in the Czech Republic rarely surprises: in summer, as a rule, it is not hot, and in winter, it is moderately calm, so tourists visit the country all year round.
- Pilsen Region – This region attracts tourists with its old Baroque buildings, nature reserves, folklore, and delicious food. Local beer is considered one of the most delicious varieties in the whole Czech Republic and beyond.
- The South Bohemian Region is the greenest and most picturesque region of the Czech Republic, with a rich history and unique architectural sights. A third of its area is covered with forests and seven thousand pounds.
- Stí nad Labem – this area is also called the “Gateway to the Czech Republic,” as it is surrounded by hills – former volcanoes, from the tops of which an impressive view of the whole Czech Republic opens. The region will be attractive for those who like to explore ancient cities and their architecture. And for those who prefer rest among the picturesque nature – there are many reserves here. Thanks to volcanic soils, the region grows the highest quality hops in the world.
- Liberec Region – the region is famous for its magnificent nature and ski resorts. It is also considered the birthplace of a precious stone – Czech garnet.
- Hradec Králové Region – the region is home to the highest mountains of the Czech Republic – the Krkonoše with numerous ski resorts, a large number of castles and fortresses, and the most significant Czech zoo – an authentic African safari.
- Pardubice Region – looks like heaven on earth. Along with its magnificent nature, this region is proud of its history and technical monuments. On the National Stud Farm territory in Kladruby nad Labem, you can see how the white breed of Starokladruby horses is bred.
- The Olomouc Region attracts tourists with its nature reserves and the Jeseníky Mountains with exceptional climatic conditions. This area is rich in its cultural traditions and ancient monuments.
- The Zlín Region has Czech traditions and folklore, good wine and plum brandy, delicious food, and mysterious castles. Visit the local town of Zlín with its unusual architecture in the Czech Republic. Thanks to the local businessman Tomáš Bati, who invited the most distinctive architects in the 1930s, the city has become a natural monument to functionalism.
- South Moravian Region – This hospitable region is considered a wine-growing region, as 96% of the Czech vineyards are located here. A region with beautiful picturesque nature and UNESCO Intangible Heritage Sites.
- Central Bohemian Region – the atmosphere of local towns and villages is created by the legacy of ancient royal dynasties, the prints of which can be found all over the region.
Old cities of the Czech Republic
In addition to castles in the Czech Republic, it is worth visiting ancient cities, in which a vast number of historical and architectural monuments are concentrated.
Cesky Krumlov is the most famous historical area of South Bohemia, located in the Sumava foothills, famous for its stunning ensemble of Gothic, Renaissance, and Baroque buildings. Cesky Krumlov Castle is the largest in the Czech Republic after Prague Castle, and it is also included in the UNESCO World Cultural Heritage List. The ensemble of the castle consists of 40 buildings and palaces, five courtyards, and a garden.
The castle on the old trade route was founded in the 1st half of the 13th century by representatives of the Vitkovich family. The architecture and the castle’s name determined its geographical location: the court was located in a loop formed by the bend of the Vltava River (die Krumme Au – crooked meadow). Podhradie got the name Latran (latus – side, side), and it was also planned to consider the river’s bends. Initially built in the Gothic style, the vast castle complex has changed – first in the Baroque style, then in the Rococo style. In the city, tourists will be interested in a garden and a park, theater, galleries, cellars. The dominant feature of the old town is the church of St. Vitus rising on the steep bank of the river. Buildings decorated in the sgraffito style, red-tiled roofs, and gilded turrets give Krumlov a unique charm and style.
Not far from Krumlov, only 32 kilometers away, there is a new (opened in 2012) attraction – a wooden observation tower at the top of Kremlin, above Lake Lipno. This tower is unique among structures of this kind for its pedestrian zone – a wooden suspended frame begins on the ground and gradually rises to the top of the building. In 2012, this site was named the best new Czech landmark.
Telč is a city on the water, Moravian Venice, whose layout is due to the presence of three artificial reservoirs and a bypass channel – the former castle moat. The city’s historical core is an old fortress, which has retained its appearance since the Middle Ages. The Gothic castle on the water was founded in the 13th century, and the building acquired its modern appearance during the reconstruction in the 16th century. The main building of the old city is a palace with rich interiors:
- The Golden
- Theater and Knights’ Halls
- The All Saints’ Chapel
- A treasury
- A banquet hall decorated in the sgraffito technique
The town of Jindrichuv Hradec is home to the third-largest castle complex in the Czech Republic, built in the 13th century on the historical border between Bohemia, Moravia, and Austria. The complex’s main building is a Gothic palace with valuable paintings, the Church of St. John the Baptist with rare frescoes, and a former Minorite monastery. The city is famous for its annual classical music (Concertino Praga) and folk music (Folková růže) festivals.
Brno is the capital of Moravia and the second most important and largest city in the Czech Republic. The most recognizable symbol of Brno is the Gothic castle of Spielberg, the silhouette of which is depicted on Czech coins. The court was founded in the 13th century on the summit of the Spielberg mountain.
Once in Brno, it is worth exploring the Moravian Gallery, the second largest museum in the Czech Republic, famous for its rich collection. The gallery, founded in 1961, contains objects of free art – not only painting, graphics, and plastic arts from ancient times to the present, but also photography, applied art, and graphic design.
Also noteworthy in Brno is the Cathedral of Saints Peter and Paul, the Basilica of the Assumption of the Virgin Mary, the Church of St. Jacob, the Town Hall, the Church of St. Michael.
The historic town of Kutná Hora, the second largest after Prague in the 14th century, became famous for its silver mines. In the 16th century, after the cessation of silver mining, its importance fell, but the town retained its charm, becoming one of the most famous tourist centers in the country. Tourists may find it interesting to visit the Chapel of All Saints, built around 1400 at a Gothic cathedral in the cemetery of the Cistercian monastery in Sedlec. As a result of the cholera epidemic of 1318 and during the Hussite wars at the beginning of the 15th century, the cemetery grew considerably. The arriving bones began to be piled up in pyramids. In 1870, by order of the Schwarzenberg’s, woodcarver Frantisek Rint decorated the chapel’s interior with bones from 40,000 skeletons, from the altar to the chandelier.
It is worth visiting Vlašský Dvor – a cultural monument of Kutnogorsk, which is a complex of buildings from the 13th – 14th centuries, once the residence of Czech kings, with an old mint; the stone palace Hradek, which today houses the Silver Museum with an exciting exposition; Cathedral of St. Barbara – Czech Notre Dame de Paris.
Plze, the fourth largest city in the Czech Republic, located in the country’s west, stretches at the confluence of four rivers – Uslava, Uglava, Radbuza, and Mži. Pilsen is famous for the following attractions: the tallest church tower in the Czech Republic (103 m) – the tower of the Cathedral of St. Bartholomew, the cathedral itself with the late Gothic Sternberg Chapel, the Town Hall, the dungeons, the Museum of West Bohemia, the third largest synagogue in the world in the Moor-Romanesque style.
As you know, Plze is the capital of Czech brewing, and Plze beer of the Prazdroi and Gambrinus brands is brewed here. The beer is produced according to the old technology, unchanged since the century before last, and the inimitable taste to the drink, according to the Czechs, is given by the Pilsen water, its malt, and the unique storage conditions in the cellars. You can learn more about the history of the Plzeský Prazdroj brewery in the Brewery Museum.
The Terezin Fortress was founded at the end of the 18th century at the confluence of the Laba and Ohři rivers, 5 km south of Litoměřice. During World War II, the German invaders set up a concentration camp for Jews in the fortress, the so-called Terezin ghetto, which housed a little less than 140,000 people (of whom 33,000 died while in the ghetto). Some of the Jews (88,000 people) were deported to Auschwitz and other death camps. By the end of the war, 17,247 people had survived in the ghetto. Soviet troops liberated Terezin on May 9, 1945. Today Terezín houses the Memorial to the Victims of the Concentration Camp.
Medical resorts of the Czech Republic
The Czech Republic is a recognized destination for health tourism, and the country is famous for its thermal and mineral spas, the most famous of which is Karlovy Vary. The city was founded by Emperor Charles IV century. 1358 appeared in a place where 132 mineral springs break through to the earth’s surface, 12 of which are with healing water. The resort has a glorious history; the entire world elite came here to improve their health: monarchs, prominent political figures, famous people of art. The city’s streets repeat the bends formed by the Teplaya River, across which openwork bridges are thrown. The town is decorated with picturesque buildings of different eras, parks, squares. In addition to medical procedures shown for a wide range of diseases, and pleasant walks in the bosom of nature, you can always enjoy your time here. For example, the city hosts the Karlovy Vary Film Festival – the second most important in Europe after the Cannes Film Festival.
Marianske Lazne -the second most important resort in the Czech Republic after Karlovy Vary, whose history begins in 1528 – discovered Ferdinand’s spring. Today there are about 40 mineral springs here.
Another Czech town with a spa tradition is Frantiskovy Lazne, popular mainly among women, as the local mud successfully treats infertility.
You can find out more about the country’s resorts in our article “Therapeutic spas of the Czech Republic,” which tells about the most popular places for treatment on the waters.
Aquapark Babylon is located in Liberec and is part of the largest entertainment center in the Czech Republic Babylon. The interiors of the water park resemble antique baths, and the most popular attractions are the “wild river” and the adrenaline “space bowl.”
The AquaPalace water park is located in the village of Čestlice near Prague – it is the largest water park in Central Europe. The complex consists of the Palace of Waves, the Palace of Adventures, and Relaxation. There is a diving tunnel for lovers of deep-sea diving, and sauna lovers can visit the classic Finnish saunas, Roman baths, and Russian baths.
The Aqua-Olomouc water park is located in Olomouc and is famous for its adrenaline-pumping attractions. Visitors are also offered a massage, solarium, and tepidarium (dry heating zone).
Where to go in the Czech Republic
Prague Old Town
The Old Town of Prague (Old Town) is the central, oldest, and most popular part of the Czech capital. Everything that Prague is associated with is concentrated here: narrow cobbled streets, unique buildings built in different architectural styles from Gothic to Art Nouveau, beautiful copper doorknobs, orange roofs, and the indescribable charm of a medieval city.
The Charles Bridge
Charles Bridge is a famous Prague landmark, one of the recognizable symbols of the city, so adored by tourists.
The medieval Charles Bridge over the Vltava River is a pedestrian, free entrance, open around the clock.
The bridge connects two historical districts – Stare Mesto and Mala Strana.
The length of the Charles Bridge in Prague is 515.76 meters (usually rounded up to 520 meters).
In the very center of Prague Castle, there is a picturesque street called Zlata Ulichka. Along the cobblestone pavement, there are tiny multi-colored “gingerbread” houses built into the arches of the former fortress wall.
National Park “Bohemian Switzerland”
This reserve, which has no analogues in Europe, stretches from the town of Tisza in the Ustecky region to the Shluknovsky ledge in the Decinsky region. The park was founded on January 1, 2000, and became a Czech extension of the German Sächsische Schweiz National Park (Saxon Switzerland), founded 10 years earlier (1990). The Bohemian Switzerland Park is part of the vast natural complex of Labske Piskovce, and the main object of protection is the characteristic sandstone phenomenon – the “rocky sandstone town” of Etrschowické and Dečinské Stena, and the associated biological diversity. Tourists love to visit observation decks with unique views of sandy cliffs, bridges and castles created by nature. The park is popular with fans of active sports: climbers, cyclists, rafting and hiking enthusiasts.
Wild nature, which for a long time developed without human intervention, was discovered at the end of the 18th century by two Swiss artists of the Romantic era – Adrian Zingg and Anton Graf. Depicting this land in engravings and describing in poetry, they quickly spread the fame of it throughout Europe. The sites along the Elbe River canyon have become the cradle of modern tourism, becoming one of the first actively visited tourist attractions in Europe.
Not only artists came here for inspiration. Forts of robber knights, rock towns, legends about gnomes and fairies influenced the storyteller Hans Christian Andersen, poet R.M. Rilke, composers K.M. von Weber, Richard Wagner and others.
And today the Pravcicke Gate is a symbol of “Czech Switzerland”, conquering artists, for example, the snow-covered Silent Rocks became the scenery for the film “The Chronicles of Narnia – The Lion, the Witch and the Wardrobe”. It was here that Lucy visited the cave of the faun Tumnus, and all four brothers and sisters crossed the rocky bridge for the first time and looked at the endless forests of Narnia.
This was once a serious obstacle for the inhabitants of local villages. Once in 1877, at the U Zeleného stromu tavern in the town of Hřensko, five brave souls made a bet that they would sail on rafts from the Dolskoy mill to what was then called the “end of the world”. On rafts 4 meters long, they really safely reached Hrzhensk, in fact, becoming the founders of the tourist water route. The local prince Clari-Aldringen invited specialists from Italy, under whose leadership, through the labor of over two hundred workers, these sites became available to the public. Suspended bridges were thrown here, tunnels were built with the help of explosives. On May 4, 1890, the grand opening of the “Quiet” (“Edmond’s”) canyon took place. Since then, “at the very end of the world”, in fact, nothing has changed much,
The Moravian Karst, or Moravian Karst, is a nature reserve, one of the largest karst massifs in Europe, located in the Czech Republic, 30 km north of Brno.
The area stretches 25 km in length. Its width in some places is 6 km. The natural park covers an area of 92 sq. km. The highest height of rock formations in reserve is 734 m. The lowest place of Kras is the Macokha abyss, which has 138 m with the Punkva River at the bottom. For tourists, unique bridges (Upper and Lower) were equipped over the abyss, from which a stunning and, at the same time, a terrible panorama of the gorge opens up.
The most popular among tourists are the caves of the Moravian Kras, of which there are about 1,100 pieces. Only five underground cavities are equipped for excursions in the Moravian Beauty, among which it is worth mentioning the Punkva cave, through which the Punkva underground river of the same name flows; deep cave Macokha; Katezhinskaya cave with unique limestone formations – helictites growing horizontally; the Balcarka stalactite cave and the Stolbsko-Shoshuvsky caves with spacious underground corridors. Other attractions of the Moravian Karst include the Empty Trough and Dry Trough karst canyons and the White Water Gap.
Unique flora and fauna protect the reserve. Many species of plants and animals are endemic. In some caves, ancient rock paintings have been found on the walls.
On the reserve territory, the so-called “ecological trains” run, delivering tourists to remote points of the park. Tourists should remember that it is stably cold even in summer in the caves, so it is worth bringing a set of warm clothes with you.
Dancing House in Prague
The Dancing House in Prague is the image of a couple in dance, expressed in urban architecture. The house consists of two towers called “Ginger and Fred,” referring to the famous Hollywood dancer and actor couple Ginger Rogers and Fred Astaire. The comparison is indeed justified: one tower is straight, has the shape of a cylinder, expanding upward, and symbolizes a man. And the second tower – glass, depicts the figure of a woman with a narrow waist. In the dance, she seemed to lean against her partner. The building’s less flattering nickname is The Drunk House.
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